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Open AccessArticle

Distribution of Chemical Species in the Water-Soil-Plant (Carya illinoiensis) System near a Mineralization Area in Chihuahua, Mexico—Health Risk Implications

Departament of Natural Resources, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Perif. Fco. R. Almada Km 1, 31453 Chihuahua, Mexico
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071393
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
The aim of this study was to quantify major and trace elements in the water, soil, and plants (Carya illionensis) in an agricultural area; and to determine the health risks associated with the walnuts ingestion by calculating the risk quotient. Samples of water, soil, tree leaves, and walnuts were collected; in total, 135 samples were analyzed. Physicochemical parameters were obtained in irrigation water and soil samples. Elemental measurements were performed in an ICP, -OES and -MS. In addition, the distribution coefficient (soil–water), transfer factor (soil–plant), and hazard quotient were evaluated. In the irrigation water, As, Cr, and Pb, showed concentrations above the maximum allowable limits. Likewise, high concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Sb were found in tree leave samples, indicating a possible tendency of hyperaccumulation of those elements. Furthermore, Cr concentrations in walnuts were high by far than the reference value (FAO/WHO). A possible competition between chemical congeners were detected from transfer factors. Although, Sb concentrations in walnuts were also high, and no legislation for it in fruits exists. The hazard risk quotient for Sb did indicate a potential health risk. Finally, it is important to consider that the health risk increases when exposure through consumption takes place over a prolonged period of time, even in low concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic elements; transfer factor; bioaccumulation; hazard risk quotient toxic elements; transfer factor; bioaccumulation; hazard risk quotient
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Cervantes-Trejo, A.; Pinedo-Álvarez, C.; Santellano-Estrada, E.; Cortes-Palacios, L.; Rentería-Villalobos, M. Distribution of Chemical Species in the Water-Soil-Plant (Carya illinoiensis) System near a Mineralization Area in Chihuahua, Mexico—Health Risk Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1393.

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