Next Article in Journal
Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method
Previous Article in Journal
Keeping Antibiotics at Home Promotes Self-Medication with Antibiotics among Chinese University Students
Open AccessArticle

Subclinical Enteric Parasitic Infections and Growth Faltering in Infants in São Tomé, Africa: A Birth Cohort Study

1
Tropical Clinic Teaching and Research Unit, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa; 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Global Health and Tropical Medicine R&D Center, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa; 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
3
Medicine of Woman, Childhood and Adolescence Teaching and Research Area, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa; 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Research Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central; 1169-045 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040688
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
  |  
PDF [720 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

The associations between enteric pathogenic parasites and growth in infants in São Tomé were explored using a refined anthropometric approach to recognize early growth faltering. A birth cohort study was conducted with follow-up to 24 months of age. Microscopic examination for protozoa and soil-transmitted helminths was performed. Anthropometric assessments included: z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight (WAVZ) and length velocities (LAVZ), length-for-age difference (LAD), and wasting and stunting risk (≤−1 SD). Generalized additive mixed effects regression models were used to explore the associations between anthropometric parameters and enteric parasitic infections and cofactors. A total of 475 infants were enrolled, and 282 completed the study. The great majority of infants were asymptomatic. Giardia lamblia was detected in 35.1% of infants in at least one stool sample, helminths in 30.4%, and Cryptosporidium spp. in 14.7%. Giardia lamblia and helminth infections were significantly associated with mean decreases of 0.10 in LAZ and 0.32 in LAD, and of 0.16 in LAZ and 0.48 in LAD, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was significantly associated with a mean decrease of 0.43 in WAVZ and 0.55 in LAVZ. The underestimated association between subclinical parasitic enteric infections and mild growth faltering in infants should be addressed in public health policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: birth cohort; enteric parasitic infection; infant growth; low-middle-income country; subclinical infection birth cohort; enteric parasitic infection; infant growth; low-middle-income country; subclinical infection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Garzón, M.; Pereira-da-Silva, L.; Seixas, J.; Papoila, A.L.; Alves, M. Subclinical Enteric Parasitic Infections and Growth Faltering in Infants in São Tomé, Africa: A Birth Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 688.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top