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Rhizosphere Microbiome Modulators: Contributions of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria towards Sustainable Agriculture

Food Security and Safety Niche, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science, Private Mail Bag X2046, North West University, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040574
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Rhizosphere microbiome which has been shown to enhance plant growth and yield are modulated or influenced by a few environmental factors such as soil type, plant cultivar, climate change and anthropogenic activities. In particular, anthropogenic activity, such as the use of nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers, is associated with environmental destruction and this calls for a more ecofriendly strategy to increase nitrogen levels in agricultural land. This feat is attainable by harnessing nitrogen-fixing endophytic and free-living rhizobacteria. Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Bacillus, have been found to have positive impacts on crops by enhancing both above and belowground biomass and could therefore play positive roles in achieving sustainable agriculture outcomes. Thus, it is necessary to study this rhizosphere microbiome with more sophisticated culture-independent techniques such as next generation sequencing (NGS) with the prospect of discovering novel bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. This review is therefore aimed at discussing factors that can modulate rhizosphere microbiome with focus on the contributions of nitrogen fixing bacteria towards sustainable agricultural development and the techniques that can be used for their study. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; next generation sequencing; plant yield; rhizobacteria; rhizosphere; sustainable agriculture microbiome; next generation sequencing; plant yield; rhizobacteria; rhizosphere; sustainable agriculture
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Igiehon, N.O.; Babalola, O.O. Rhizosphere Microbiome Modulators: Contributions of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria towards Sustainable Agriculture. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 574.

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