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Open AccessArticle

Ethylenediamine-N,N′-Disuccinic Acid (EDDS)—Enhanced Flushing Optimization for Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation and Assessment of Prospective Cu and Zn Transport

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Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, 03043 Cassino, Italy
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Telematic University Pegaso, Piazza Trieste e Trento 48, 80132 Naples, Italy
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Department of Environmental, Building, Civil Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona n.4, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Institute of Soil Research, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
6
Alchemia-nova GmbH, Baumgartenstrasse 93, 1140 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030543
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at investigating the effect of operative parameters on the efficiency of a soil flushing process, conducted on real contaminated soil containing high amounts of Cu and Zn. Soil flushing tests were carried out with Ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) as a flushing agent due to its high biodegradability and environmentally friendly characteristics. Process parameters such as Empty-Bed Contact Time (EBCT) and EDDS solution molarity were varied from 21–33 h and from 0.36–3.6 mM, respectively. Effects on the mobility of cations such as Fe and Mn were also investigated. Results showed that very high performances can be obtained at [EDDS] = 3.6 mM and EBCT = 33 h. In these conditions, in fact, the amount of removed Cu was 53%, and the amount of removed Zn was 46%. Metal distribution at different depths from the top surface revealed that Cu has higher mobility than Zn. The process results were strongly dependent on the exchange of metals due to the different stability constants of the EDDS complexes. Finally, results from a comparative study showed that soil washing treatment reached the same removal efficiency of the flushing process in a shorter time but required a larger amount of the EDDS solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal mobility; soil flushing; soil reclamation; agricultural soil; EDDS deficiency metal mobility; soil flushing; soil reclamation; agricultural soil; EDDS deficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Race, M.; Ferraro, A.; Fabbricino, M.; La Marca, A.; Panico, A.; Spasiano, D.; Tognacchini, A.; Pirozzi, F. Ethylenediamine-N,N′-Disuccinic Acid (EDDS)—Enhanced Flushing Optimization for Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation and Assessment of Prospective Cu and Zn Transport. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 543.

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