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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070739

Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

1
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zulia, P.O. Box 4011-A-526, Maracaibo 4005, Venezuela
2
Université de Lyon, CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 VILLEURBANNE, France
3
Research Group of Analytical Chemistry and Life Sciences, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus of Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Micro-Pollutants and Human Exposure)
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Abstract

A new analytical method coupling a (off-line) solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD). Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers. View Full-Text
Keywords: acidic drugs; capillary zone electrophoresis; solid-phase microextraction; porapak Q acidic drugs; capillary zone electrophoresis; solid-phase microextraction; porapak Q
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Espina-Benitez, M.; Araujo, L.; Prieto, A.; Navalón, A.; Vílchez, J.L.; Valera, P.; Zambrano, A.; Dugas, V. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 739.

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