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Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang. 4138 Linglong Road, Qingzhou, 262500, Shandong Province, China
Department of Preventative Medicine, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang Province, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 120;
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 27 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
PDF [2319 KB, uploaded 12 January 2016]


Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoking; electronic cigarette; meta-analysis cigarette smoking; electronic cigarette; meta-analysis

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Wang, M.; Wang, J.-W.; Cao, S.-S.; Wang, H.-Q.; Hu, R.-Y. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 120.

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