Over the last two decades, halophilic (organisms that thrive at high salt concentrations) and halotolerant (organisms that have adapted to high salt concentrations) myxobacteria emerged as an important source of structurally diverse secondary metabolites from the marine environment. This review explores the advance of metagenomics analysis and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny of the cultured and uncultured myxobacteria from marine and other salt-environments up to July 2018. The diversity of novel groups of myxobacteria in these environments appears unprecedented, especially in the Sorangiineae
suborders. The Sandaracinaceae
related clade in the Sorangiineae
suborder seems more widely distributed compared to the exclusively marine myxobacterial cluster. Some of the previously identified clones from metagenomic studies were found to be related to the Nannocystineae
suborder. This understanding provides the foundation for a vital, unexplored resource. Understanding the conditions required to cultivate these yet “uncultured” myxobacteria in the laboratory, while a key next step, offers a significant potential to further expand access to diverse secondary metabolites.
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