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Future Directions of Marine Myxobacterial Natural Product Discovery Inferred from Metagenomics

1
Department of Microbial Natural Products (MINS), Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS)—Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Campus E8 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
2
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Hannover-Braunschweig, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
3
Xenobe Research Institute, P.O. Box 3052, San Diego, CA 92163-1052, USA
4
Department of Pharmacy, Saarland University, Campus E8 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090303
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Myxobacteria: Sea Secrets from the Slime)
Over the last two decades, halophilic (organisms that thrive at high salt concentrations) and halotolerant (organisms that have adapted to high salt concentrations) myxobacteria emerged as an important source of structurally diverse secondary metabolites from the marine environment. This review explores the advance of metagenomics analysis and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny of the cultured and uncultured myxobacteria from marine and other salt-environments up to July 2018. The diversity of novel groups of myxobacteria in these environments appears unprecedented, especially in the Sorangiineae and Nannocystineae suborders. The Sandaracinaceae related clade in the Sorangiineae suborder seems more widely distributed compared to the exclusively marine myxobacterial cluster. Some of the previously identified clones from metagenomic studies were found to be related to the Nannocystineae suborder. This understanding provides the foundation for a vital, unexplored resource. Understanding the conditions required to cultivate these yet “uncultured” myxobacteria in the laboratory, while a key next step, offers a significant potential to further expand access to diverse secondary metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine myxobacteria; metagenomics; uncultured; halophilic organisms; anaerobic; 16S rRNA; Sorangiineae; Nannocystineae; Sandaracinaceae related clades; marine myxobacterial clusters marine myxobacteria; metagenomics; uncultured; halophilic organisms; anaerobic; 16S rRNA; Sorangiineae; Nannocystineae; Sandaracinaceae related clades; marine myxobacterial clusters
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Garcia, R.; La Clair, J.J.; Müller, R. Future Directions of Marine Myxobacterial Natural Product Discovery Inferred from Metagenomics. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 303.

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