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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Evaluations with 2d Electrical Resistance Tomography in the Low-Conductivity Solutions Using 3d-Printed Phantoms and Sucrose Crystal Agglomerate Assessments

Institute of Applied Computer Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Sensors 2021, 21(2), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020564
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tomography Sensing Technologies)
Crystallization is a significant procedure in the manufacturing of many pharmaceutical and solid food products. In-situ electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a novel process analytical tool (PAT) to provide a cheap and quick way to test, visualize, and evaluate the progress of crystallization processes. In this work, the spatial accuracy of the nonconductive phantoms in low-conductivity solutions was evaluated. Gauss–Newton, linear back projection, and iterative total variation reconstruction algorithms were used to compare the phantom reconstructions for tap water, industrial-grade saturated sucrose solution, and demineralized water. A cylindrical phantom measuring 10 mm in diameter and a cross-section area of 1.5% of the total beaker area was detected at the center of the beaker. Two phantoms with a 10-mm diameter were visualized separately in noncentral locations. The quantitative evaluations were done for the phantoms with radii ranging from 10 mm to 50 mm in demineralized water. Multiple factors, such as ERT device and sensor development, Finite Element Model (FEM) mesh density and simulations, image reconstruction algorithms, number of iterations, segmentation methods, and morphological image processing methods, were discussed and analyzed to achieve spatial accuracy. The development of ERT imaging modality for the purpose of monitoring crystallization in low-conductivity solutions was performed satisfactorily. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2D electrical resistance tomography; low-conductivity solutions; crystallization; inverse imaging 2D electrical resistance tomography; low-conductivity solutions; crystallization; inverse imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rao, G.; Sattar, M.A.; Wajman, R.; Jackowska-Strumiłło, L. Quantitative Evaluations with 2d Electrical Resistance Tomography in the Low-Conductivity Solutions Using 3d-Printed Phantoms and Sucrose Crystal Agglomerate Assessments. Sensors 2021, 21, 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020564

AMA Style

Rao G, Sattar MA, Wajman R, Jackowska-Strumiłło L. Quantitative Evaluations with 2d Electrical Resistance Tomography in the Low-Conductivity Solutions Using 3d-Printed Phantoms and Sucrose Crystal Agglomerate Assessments. Sensors. 2021; 21(2):564. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rao, Guruprasad; Sattar, Muhammad A.; Wajman, Radosław; Jackowska-Strumiłło, Lidia. 2021. "Quantitative Evaluations with 2d Electrical Resistance Tomography in the Low-Conductivity Solutions Using 3d-Printed Phantoms and Sucrose Crystal Agglomerate Assessments" Sensors 21, no. 2: 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020564

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