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Article

Game-Theoretic Decision Support for Cyber Forensic Investigations

1
Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Greenwich, London SE10 9BD, UK
2
Institut of Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity, Universitaet Klagenfurt, Universitatsstrasse 65-67, 9020 Klagenfurt, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ahmed Bouridane
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165300
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 1 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Cyber Situational Awareness in Computer Networks)
The use of anti-forensic techniques is a very common practice that stealthy adversaries may deploy to minimise their traces and make the investigation of an incident harder by evading detection and attribution. In this paper, we study the interaction between a cyber forensic Investigator and a strategic Attacker using a game-theoretic framework. This is based on a Bayesian game of incomplete information played on a multi-host cyber forensics investigation graph of actions traversed by both players. The edges of the graph represent players’ actions across different hosts in a network. In alignment with the concept of Bayesian games, we define two Attacker types to represent their ability of deploying anti-forensic techniques to conceal their activities. In this way, our model allows the Investigator to identify the optimal investigating policy taking into consideration the cost and impact of the available actions, while coping with the uncertainty of the Attacker’s type and strategic decisions. To evaluate our model, we construct a realistic case study based on threat reports and data extracted from the MITRE ATT&CK STIX repository, Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), and interviews with cyber-security practitioners. We use the case study to compare the performance of the proposed method against two other investigative methods and three different types of Attackers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber forensics; digital forensics; game theory; bayesian game; multi-stage attacks; decision support; optimisation cyber forensics; digital forensics; game theory; bayesian game; multi-stage attacks; decision support; optimisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nisioti, A.; Loukas, G.; Rass, S.; Panaousis, E. Game-Theoretic Decision Support for Cyber Forensic Investigations. Sensors 2021, 21, 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165300

AMA Style

Nisioti A, Loukas G, Rass S, Panaousis E. Game-Theoretic Decision Support for Cyber Forensic Investigations. Sensors. 2021; 21(16):5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nisioti, Antonia, George Loukas, Stefan Rass, and Emmanouil Panaousis. 2021. "Game-Theoretic Decision Support for Cyber Forensic Investigations" Sensors 21, no. 16: 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165300

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