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Open AccessArticle

Rotation, Strain, and Translation Sensors Performance Tests with Active Seismic Sources

1
Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, 80333 München, Germany
2
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany
3
Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zürich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
4
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zürich, Stefano- Franscini-Platz 5, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
5
Institute of Geosciences, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
6
Institute of Geophysics and Geoinformatics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 12, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
7
Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Hans-Högn-Straße 12, 95030 Hof/Saale, Germany
8
iXblue, 34 Rue de la Croix de Fer, 78100 Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
9
Commissariat à L’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergie Alternatives (ou CEA), DAM, DIF, CEDEX, 91297 Arpajon, France
10
Streckeisen GmbH, Daettlikonerstrasse 5, 8422 Pfungen, Switzerland
11
Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
12
Elproma Elektronika Ltd., 13 Szymanowskiego Str., 05-082 Łomianki, Poland
13
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Opole University of Technology, ul.Katowicka 48, 45-061 Opole, Poland
14
Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09 Prague, Czech Repulic
15
Department of Geophysics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010264
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 27 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Rate Sensors and Their Applications)
Interest in measuring displacement gradients, such as rotation and strain, is growing in many areas of geophysical research. This results in an urgent demand for reliable and field-deployable instruments measuring these quantities. In order to further establish a high-quality standard for rotation and strain measurements in seismology, we organized a comparative sensor test experiment that took place in November 2019 at the Geophysical Observatory of the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich in Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany. More than 24 different sensors, including three-component and single-component broadband rotational seismometers, six-component strong-motion sensors and Rotaphone systems, as well as the large ring laser gyroscopes ROMY and a Distributed Acoustic Sensing system, were involved in addition to 14 classical broadband seismometers and a 160 channel, 4.5 Hz geophone chain. The experiment consisted of two parts: during the first part, the sensors were co-located in a huddle test recording self-noise and signals from small, nearby explosions. In a second part, the sensors were distributed into the field in various array configurations recording seismic signals that were generated by small amounts of explosive and a Vibroseis truck. This paper presents details on the experimental setup and a first sensor performance comparison focusing on sensor self-noise, signal-to-noise ratios, and waveform similarities for the rotation rate sensors. Most of the sensors show a high level of coherency and waveform similarity within a narrow frequency range between 10 Hz and 20 Hz for recordings from a nearby explosion signal. Sensor as well as experiment design are critically accessed revealing the great need for reliable reference sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: rotation sensors; strain sensors; seismology; instrumentation rotation sensors; strain sensors; seismology; instrumentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bernauer, F.; Behnen, K.; Wassermann, J.; Egdorf, S.; Igel, H.; Donner, S.; Stammler, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Edme, P.; Sollberger, D.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J.; Paitz, P.; Igel, J.; Smolinski, K.; Fichtner, A.; Rossi, Y.; Izgi, G.; Vollmer, D.; Eibl, E.P.S.; Buske, S.; Veress, C.; Guattari, F.; Laudat, T.; Mattio, L.; Sèbe, O.; Olivier, S.; Lallemand, C.; Brunner, B.; Kurzych, A.T.; Dudek, M.; Jaroszewicz, L.R.; Kowalski, J.K.; Bońkowski, P.A.; Bobra, P.; Zembaty, Z.; Vackář, J.; Málek, J.; Brokesova, J. Rotation, Strain, and Translation Sensors Performance Tests with Active Seismic Sources. Sensors 2021, 21, 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010264

AMA Style

Bernauer F, Behnen K, Wassermann J, Egdorf S, Igel H, Donner S, Stammler K, Hoffmann M, Edme P, Sollberger D, Schmelzbach C, Robertsson J, Paitz P, Igel J, Smolinski K, Fichtner A, Rossi Y, Izgi G, Vollmer D, Eibl EPS, Buske S, Veress C, Guattari F, Laudat T, Mattio L, Sèbe O, Olivier S, Lallemand C, Brunner B, Kurzych AT, Dudek M, Jaroszewicz LR, Kowalski JK, Bońkowski PA, Bobra P, Zembaty Z, Vackář J, Málek J, Brokesova J. Rotation, Strain, and Translation Sensors Performance Tests with Active Seismic Sources. Sensors. 2021; 21(1):264. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010264

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bernauer, Felix; Behnen, Kathrin; Wassermann, Joachim; Egdorf, Sven; Igel, Heiner; Donner, Stefanie; Stammler, Klaus; Hoffmann, Mathias; Edme, Pascal; Sollberger, David; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Robertsson, Johan; Paitz, Patrick; Igel, Jonas; Smolinski, Krystyna; Fichtner, Andreas; Rossi, Yara; Izgi, Gizem; Vollmer, Daniel; Eibl, Eva P.S.; Buske, Stefan; Veress, Christian; Guattari, Frederic; Laudat, Theo; Mattio, Laurent; Sèbe, Olivie; Olivier, Serge; Lallemand, Charlie; Brunner, Basil; Kurzych, Anna T.; Dudek, Michał; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Kowalski, Jerzy K.; Bońkowski, Piotr A.; Bobra, Piotr; Zembaty, Zbigniew; Vackář, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Brokesova, Johana. 2021. "Rotation, Strain, and Translation Sensors Performance Tests with Active Seismic Sources" Sensors 21, no. 1: 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010264

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