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Open AccessArticle

A New DGNSS Positioning Infrastructure for Android Smartphones

1
Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong M1504, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Navigation System and Equipment Technology, Shijiazhuang 050081, China
3
The 54th Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Shijiazhuang 050081, China
4
Department of Science and technology of Surveying and Mapping, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020487
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 30 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GNSS-based High Precision Positioning Technology)
One’s position has become an important piece of information for our everyday lives in a smart city. Currently, a position can be obtained easily using smartphones that is equipped with low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) chipsets with accuracy varying from 5 m to 10 m. Differential GNSS (DGNSS) is an efficient technology that removes the majority of GNSS errors with the aid of reference stations installed at known locations. The sub-meter accuracy can be achieved when applying the DGNSS technology on the advanced receivers. In 2016, Android has opened the accesses of raw GNSS measurements to developers. However, most of the mid and low-end smartphones only provide the data using the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) protocol. They do not provide the raw measurements, and thus do not support the DGNSS operation either. We proposed a DGNSS infrastructure that correct the standalone GNSS position of smartphones using the corrections from the reference station. In the infrastructure, the position correction is generated considering the GNSS satellite IDs that contribute to the standalone solution in smartphones, and the position obtained is equivalent to the solution of using the range-domain correction directly. To serve a large number of smartphone users, a Client/Server architecture is developed to cope with a mass of DGNSS positioning requests efficiently. The comparison of the proposed infrastructure against the ground truth, for all field tests in open areas, showed that the infrastructure achieves the horizontal positioning accuracy better than 2 m. The improvement in accuracy can reach more than 50% for the test in the afternoon. The infrastructure brings benefits to applications that require more accuracy without requiring any hardware modifications.
Keywords: GNSS; DGNSS; smartphone; android; infrastructure; accuracy GNSS; DGNSS; smartphone; android; infrastructure; accuracy
MDPI and ACS Style

Weng, D.; Gan, X.; Chen, W.; Ji, S.; Lu, Y. A New DGNSS Positioning Infrastructure for Android Smartphones. Sensors 2020, 20, 487.

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