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Open AccessArticle

Formal Verification of Heuristic Autonomous Intersection Management Using Statistical Model Checking

Discipline of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 453552, India
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Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4506; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164506
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Data Fusion for Autonomous and Connected Driving)
Autonomous vehicles are gaining popularity throughout the world among researchers and consumers. However, their popularity has not yet reached the level where it is widely accepted as a fully developed technology as a large portion of the consumer base feels skeptical about it. Proving the correctness of this technology will help in establishing faith in it. That is easier said than done because of the fact that the formal verification techniques has not attained the level of development and application that it is ought to. In this work, we present Statistical Model Checking (SMC) as a possible solution for verifying the safety of autonomous systems and algorithms. We apply it on Heuristic Autonomous Intersection Management (HAIM) algorithm. The presented verification routine can be adopted for other conflict point based autonomous intersection management algorithms as well. Along with verifying the HAIM, we also demonstrate the modeling and verification applied at each stage of development to verify the inherent behavior of the algorithm. The HAIM scheme is formally modeled using a variant of the language of Timed Automata. The model consists of automata that encode the behavior of vehicles, intersection manager (IM) and collision checkers. To verify the complete nature of the heuristic and ensure correct modeling of the system, we model it in layers and verify each layer separately for their expected behavior. Along with that, we perform implementation verification and error injection testing to ensure faithful modeling of the system. Results show with high confidence the freedom from collisions of the intersection controlled by the HAIM algorithm. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; collision avoidance; heuristic algorithm; intersection management; model checking; uppaal-SMC autonomous vehicles; collision avoidance; heuristic algorithm; intersection management; model checking; uppaal-SMC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chouhan, A.P.; Banda, G. Formal Verification of Heuristic Autonomous Intersection Management Using Statistical Model Checking. Sensors 2020, 20, 4506.

AMA Style

Chouhan AP, Banda G. Formal Verification of Heuristic Autonomous Intersection Management Using Statistical Model Checking. Sensors. 2020; 20(16):4506.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chouhan, Aaditya P.; Banda, Gourinath. 2020. "Formal Verification of Heuristic Autonomous Intersection Management Using Statistical Model Checking" Sensors 20, no. 16: 4506.

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