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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020588

Gradient-Type Magnetoelectric Current Sensor with Strong Multisource Noise Suppression

1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Hong Kong Branch of National Rail Transit Electrification and Automation Engineering Technology Research Center, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors and Their Applications)
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Abstract

A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i.e., MFG detection) and the MFG-induced ME effect in the ME composite pair (i.e., MFG conversion). The sensor output voltage is directly obtained from the gradient ME voltage of the ME composite pair and is calibrated against cable current to give the current sensitivity. The current sensing performance of the sensor is evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, under multisource noises of electric fields, magnetic fields, vibrations, and thermals. The sensor combines the merits of small nonlinearity in the current-induced MFG effect with those of high sensitivity and high common-mode noise rejection rate in the MFG-induced ME effect to achieve a high current sensitivity of 0.65–12.55 mV/A in the frequency range of 10 Hz–170 kHz, a small input-output nonlinearity of <500 ppm, a small thermal drift of <0.2%/℃ in the current range of 0–20 A, and a high common-mode noise rejection rate of 17–28 dB from multisource noises. View Full-Text
Keywords: current sensor; magnetic field gradient; magnetoelectric effect; multisource noise suppression current sensor; magnetic field gradient; magnetoelectric effect; multisource noise suppression
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, M.; Or, S.W. Gradient-Type Magnetoelectric Current Sensor with Strong Multisource Noise Suppression. Sensors 2018, 18, 588.

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