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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020342

Preliminary Results of a New Auxiliary Mechatronic Near-Field Radar System to 3D Mammography for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Research Applications Specialist and Quantum Engineering Architect, Keysight Technologies, 65 Alsun Drive, Hollis, NH 03049, USA
4
Harvard Vanguard, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Dagheyan, A.G.; Molaei, A.; Obermeier, R.; Martinez-Lorenzo, J. Preliminary imaging results and SAR analysis of a microwave imaging system for early breast cancer detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE 38th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Orlando, FL, USA, 16–20 August 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7839 KB, uploaded 25 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Accurate and early detection of breast cancer is of high importance, as it is directly associated with the patients’ overall well-being during treatment and their chances of survival. Uncertainties in current breast imaging methods can potentially cause two main problems: (1) missing newly formed or small tumors; and (2) false alarms, which could be a source of stress for patients. A recent study at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) indicates that using Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) can reduce the number of false alarms, when compared to conventional mammography. Despite the image quality enhancement DBT provides, the accurate detection of cancerous masses is still limited by low radiological contrast (about 1%) between the fibro-glandular tissue and affected tissue at X-ray frequencies. In a lower frequency region, at microwave frequencies, the contrast is comparatively higher (about 10%) between the aforementioned tissues; yet, microwave imaging suffers from low spatial resolution. This work reviews conventional X-ray breast imaging and describes the preliminary results of a novel near-field radar imaging mechatronic system (NRIMS) that can be fused with the DBT, in a co-registered fashion, to combine the advantages of both modalities. The NRIMS consists of two antipodal Vivaldi antennas, an XY positioner, and an ethanol container, all of which are particularly designed based on the DBT physical specifications. In this paper, the independent performance of the NRIMS is assessed by (1) imaging a bearing ball immersed in sunflower oil and (2) computing the heat Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) due to the electromagnetic power transmitted into the breast. The preliminary results demonstrate that the system is capable of generating images of the ball. Furthermore, the SAR results show that the system complies with the standards set for human trials. As a result, a configuration based on this design might be suitable for use in realistic clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: bimodal breast imaging; breast cancer detection; Near-field Radar Imaging; antipodal Vivaldi antenna bimodal breast imaging; breast cancer detection; Near-field Radar Imaging; antipodal Vivaldi antenna
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ghanbarzadeh Dagheyan, A.; Molaei, A.; Obermeier, R.; Westwood, A.; Martinez, A.; Martinez Lorenzo, J.A. Preliminary Results of a New Auxiliary Mechatronic Near-Field Radar System to 3D Mammography for Early Detection of Breast Cancer. Sensors 2018, 18, 342.

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