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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010006

Screen-Printed Electrode Modified by Bismuth /Fe3O4 Nanoparticle/Ionic Liquid Composite Using Internal Standard Normalization for Accurate Determination of Cd(II) in Soil

1,2
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
3
and
1,2,*
1
Key Lab of Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research, Ministry of Education of China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Key Lab of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agricultural of China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3
College of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4953 KB, uploaded 21 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

The quality and safety of agricultural products are threatened by heavy metal ions in soil, which can be absorbed by the crops, and then accumulated in the human body through the food chain. In this paper, we report a low-cost and easy-to-use screen-printed electrode (SPE) for cadmium ion (Cd(II)) detection based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which decorated with ionic liquid (IL), magnetite nanoparticle (Fe3O4), and deposited a bismuth film (Bi). The characteristics of Bi/Fe3O4/ILSPE were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and linear sweep voltammetry. We found that the sensitivity of SPE was improved dramatically after functionalized with Bi/Fe3O4/IL. Under optimized conditions, the concentrations of Cd(II) are linear with current responses in a range from 0.5 to 40 µg/L with the lowest detection limit of 0.05 µg/L (S/N = 3). Additionally, the internal standard normalization (ISN) was used to process the response signals of Bi/Fe3O4/ILSPE and established a new linear equation. For detecting three different Cd(II) concentrations, the root-mean-square error using ISN (0.25) is lower than linear method (0.36). Finally, the proposed electrode was applied to trace Cd(II) in soil samples with the recovery in the range from 91.77 to 107.83%. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemistry; screen-printed electrode; bismuth; Fe3O4 nanoparticle; cadmium electrochemistry; screen-printed electrode; bismuth; Fe3O4 nanoparticle; cadmium
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Wang, H.; Zhao, G.; Yin, Y.; Wang, Z.; Liu, G. Screen-Printed Electrode Modified by Bismuth /Fe3O4 Nanoparticle/Ionic Liquid Composite Using Internal Standard Normalization for Accurate Determination of Cd(II) in Soil. Sensors 2018, 18, 6.

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