Next Article in Journal
Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar
Next Article in Special Issue
Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System
Previous Article in Journal
Wheelchair Navigation System for Disabled and Elderly People
Previous Article in Special Issue
Full On-Device Stay Points Detection in Smartphones for Location-Based Mobile Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1811;

An Accurate Direction Finding Scheme Using Virtual Antenna Array via Smartphones

School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Wang
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [1994 KB, uploaded 29 October 2016]   |  


With the development of localization technologies, researchers solve the indoor localization problems using diverse methods and equipment. Most localization techniques require either specialized devices or fingerprints, which are inconvenient for daily use. Therefore, we propose and implement an accurate, efficient and lightweight system for indoor direction finding using common smartphones and loudspeakers. Our method is derived from a key insight: By moving a smartphone in regular patterns, we can effectively emulate the sensitivity and functionality of a Uniform Antenna Array to estimate the angle of arrival of the target signal. Specifically, a user only needs to hold his smartphone still in front of him, and then rotate his body around 360 duration with the smartphone at an approximate constant velocity. Then, our system can provide accurate directional guidance and lead the user to their destinations (normal loudspeakers we preset in the indoor environment transmitting high frequency acoustic signals) after a few measurements. Major challenges in implementing our system are not only imitating a virtual antenna array by ordinary smartphones but also overcoming the detection difficulties caused by the complex indoor environment. In addition, we leverage the gyroscope of the smartphone to reduce the impact of a user’s motion pattern change to the accuracy of our system. In order to get rid of the multipath effect, we leverage multiple signal classification to calculate the direction of the target signal, and then design and deploy our system in various indoor scenes. Extensive comparative experiments show that our system is reliable under various circumstances. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor direction finding; antenna array simulation; multiple signal classification; multipath effect indoor direction finding; antenna array simulation; multiple signal classification; multipath effect

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Xiong, Y.; Huang, W. An Accurate Direction Finding Scheme Using Virtual Antenna Array via Smartphones. Sensors 2016, 16, 1811.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top