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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1708;

Application and Uses of Electronic Noses for Clinical Diagnosis on Urine Samples: A Review

Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133, Italy
Department of Urology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy
Ospedale Humanitas Mater Domini, Via Gerenzano 2, Castellanza, Varese 21053, Italy
Italian Ministry of Defense’s, Military Veterinary Center, CEMIVET, Via Provinciale Castiglionese, 201, Grosseto 58100, Italy
Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Sberveglieri and Vittorio Ferrari
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies in Italy 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [271 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]


The electronic nose is able to provide useful information through the analysis of the volatile organic compounds in body fluids, such as exhaled breath, urine and blood. This paper focuses on the review of electronic nose studies and applications in the specific field of medical diagnostics based on the analysis of the gaseous headspace of human urine, in order to provide a broad overview of the state of the art and thus enhance future developments in this field. The research in this field is rather recent and still in progress, and there are several aspects that need to be investigated more into depth, not only to develop and improve specific electronic noses for different diseases, but also with the aim to discover and analyse the connections between specific diseases and the body fluids odour. Further research is needed to improve the results obtained up to now; the development of new sensors and data processing methods should lead to greater diagnostic accuracy thus making the electronic nose an effective tool for early detection of different kinds of diseases, ranging from infections to tumours or exposure to toxic agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: urine analysis; olfaction; prostate cancer; VOCs; biomarkers urine analysis; olfaction; prostate cancer; VOCs; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Capelli, L.; Taverna, G.; Bellini, A.; Eusebio, L.; Buffi, N.; Lazzeri, M.; Guazzoni, G.; Bozzini, G.; Seveso, M.; Mandressi, A.; Tidu, L.; Grizzi, F.; Sardella, P.; Latorre, G.; Hurle, R.; Lughezzani, G.; Casale, P.; Meregali, S.; Sironi, S. Application and Uses of Electronic Noses for Clinical Diagnosis on Urine Samples: A Review. Sensors 2016, 16, 1708.

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