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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 899-931;

Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali-Produzione, Territorio, Agroenergia (DISAA), Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2-20133 Milano, Italy
USDA Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, 432 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776-0227, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Food Safety and Quality)
Full-Text   |   PDF [285 KB, uploaded 7 January 2015]


Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally utilize and rely on human testers or panels to evaluate fruit quality and aroma characters for assessing fruit salability in fresh markets. We explore the current and potential utilization of electronic-nose devices (with specialized sensor arrays), instruments that are very effective in discriminating complex mixtures of fruit volatiles, as new effective tools for more efficient fruit aroma analyses to replace conventional expensive methods used in fruit aroma assessments. We review the chemical nature of fruit volatiles during all stages of the agro-fruit production process, describe some of the more important applications that electronic nose (e-nose) technologies have provided for fruit aroma characterizations, and summarize recent research providing e-nose data on the effectiveness of these specialized gas-sensing instruments for fruit identifications, cultivar discriminations, ripeness assessments and fruit grading for assuring fruit quality in commercial markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic aroma detection; e-nose; fruit volatiles; volatile organic compounds electronic aroma detection; e-nose; fruit volatiles; volatile organic compounds
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Baietto, M.; Wilson, A.D. Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading. Sensors 2015, 15, 899-931.

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