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Review

Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali-Produzione, Territorio, Agroenergia (DISAA), Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2-20133 Milano, Italy
2
USDA Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, 432 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776-0227, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 899-931; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150100899
Received: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Food Safety and Quality)
Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally utilize and rely on human testers or panels to evaluate fruit quality and aroma characters for assessing fruit salability in fresh markets. We explore the current and potential utilization of electronic-nose devices (with specialized sensor arrays), instruments that are very effective in discriminating complex mixtures of fruit volatiles, as new effective tools for more efficient fruit aroma analyses to replace conventional expensive methods used in fruit aroma assessments. We review the chemical nature of fruit volatiles during all stages of the agro-fruit production process, describe some of the more important applications that electronic nose (e-nose) technologies have provided for fruit aroma characterizations, and summarize recent research providing e-nose data on the effectiveness of these specialized gas-sensing instruments for fruit identifications, cultivar discriminations, ripeness assessments and fruit grading for assuring fruit quality in commercial markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic aroma detection; e-nose; fruit volatiles; volatile organic compounds electronic aroma detection; e-nose; fruit volatiles; volatile organic compounds
MDPI and ACS Style

Baietto, M.; Wilson, A.D. Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading. Sensors 2015, 15, 899-931. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150100899

AMA Style

Baietto M, Wilson AD. Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading. Sensors. 2015; 15(1):899-931. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150100899

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baietto, Manuela, and Alphus D. Wilson. 2015. "Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading" Sensors 15, no. 1: 899-931. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150100899

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