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BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

Department of Mechanical Engineering, ROC Military Academy, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan
Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 359-372;
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 24 December 2011 / Accepted: 29 December 2011 / Published: 30 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
PDF [558 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan. View Full-Text
Keywords: absorptance; BIPV; electrochromic; tungsten oxide (WO3) absorptance; BIPV; electrochromic; tungsten oxide (WO3)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ma, R.-H.; Chen, Y.-C. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices. Sensors 2012, 12, 359-372.

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