Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
2. Literature Review
- Acknowledgement spoofing.
- Selective forwarding.
- Sybil attacks.
- Wormholes attacks.
- Sinkhole attacks.
- Hello flood attacks.
3. Secure Adaptive Distributed Topology Control Algorithm
3.1. Phase I: Anti-node Detection
3.2. Phase II: Cluster Formation
3.3. Phase III: Key Distribution
3.4. Phase IV: Key Renewal
4. Determining the Quarantine Region
4.1. Method 1: Quarantine for Clusters
4.2. Method 2: Quarantine for Nodes
4.3. Method 3: The Infected Areas
5. Performance Analysis
5.1. The Routing Variation
5.2. Analysis of Energy Consumption
Phase II: Clusterhead Selection
Phase III: Key Distribution
Phase IV: Key Renewal
5.3. Comparison of the SADTCA and the DADS
6.1. Case I: Quarantine for Clusters
6.2. Case II: Quarantine for Nodes
6.3. Quarantine for Infected Areas (Cases III and IV)
6.4. Proportion of the Quarantine Region
6.5. Energy Consumption
References and Notes
- Al-Karaki, J.N.; Kamal, A.E. Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey. IEEE Wirel. Commun 2004, 11, 6–28. [Google Scholar]
- Djenouri, D.; Khelladi, L. A survey of security issues in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor 2005, 7, 2–28. [Google Scholar]
- Karlof, C.; Wagner, D. Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures. Ad Hoc Netw 2003, 1, 293–315. [Google Scholar]
- Karlof, C.; Sastry, N.; Wagner, D. TinySec: A link layer security architecture for wireless sensor networks. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, Baltimore, MD, USA, November 3–5, 2004; ACM: New York, NY, USA, 2004; pp. 162–175. [Google Scholar]
- Yi, S.; Naldurg, P.; Kravets, R. A security-aware routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. Proceedings Of ACM Symposium On Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (MOBIHOC), Lausanne, Switzerland, June 9–11, 2002; pp. 286–292.
- Zhu, S.; Setia, S.; Jajodia, S. LEAP: efficient security mechanisms for large-scale distributed sensor networks. Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS’ 03), Washington, DC, USA, October 27–30, 2003; pp. 62–72.
- Dimitriou, T.; Krontiris, I. A localized, distributed protocol for secure information exchange in sensor networks. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Denver, Colorado, April 3–8, 2005; p. 240a.
- Li, H.; Singhal, M. A secure routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, HI, USA, January 4–7, 2006; 9, p. 225a.
- Wood, A.; Stankovic, J. Denial of service in sensor networks. Computer 2002, 35, 54–62. [Google Scholar]
- Wood, A.; Stankovic, J.; Son, S. JAM: A jammed-area mapping service for sensor networks. Proceedings of the 24th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS’03), Cancun, Mexico, December 3–5, 2003; pp. 286–297.
- Newsome, J.; Shi, E.; Song, D.; Perrig, A. The sybil attack in sensor networks: Analysis & defenses. Proceedings of the third international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks, Berkeley, CA, USA, April 26–27, 2004; pp. 259–268.
- Hu, Y.C.; Perrig, A.; Johnson, D.B. Wormhole detection in wireless ad hoc networks. Rice University Department of Computer Science Technical Report TR01-384, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA; 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Anderson, R.; Kuhn, M. Tamper resistance - a cautionary note. Proceedings of the Second Usenix Workshop on Electronic Commerce, Oakland, California, November 18–21, 1996; pp. 1–11.
- Roosta, T.; Shieh, S.; Sastry, S. Taxonomy of security attacks in sensor networks and countermeasures. Proceedings of The First IEEE International Conference on System Integration and Reliability Improvements, Hanoi, Vietnam, December, 2006; pp. 13–15.
- Shaikh, R.A.; Jameel, H.; d’Auriol, B.J.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.; Song, Y.-J. Group-based trust management scheme for clustered wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Parall. Distrib. Sys 2009, 20, 1698–1712. [Google Scholar]
- Chu, K.-T.; Wen, C.-Y.; Ouyang, Y.-C.; Sethares, W. A. Adaptive distributed topology control for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2007), Valencia, Spain, October 14–20, 2007; pp. 378–386.
- Sancak, S.; Cayirci, E.; Coskun, V.; Levi, A. Sensor wars: detecting and defending against spam attacks in wireless sensor networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Paris, France, June 20–24, 2004; pp. 3668–3672.
- Coskun, V.; Cayirci, E.; Levi, A.; Sancak, S. Quarantine region scheme to mitigate spam attacks in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mobil. Comput 2006, 5, 1074–1086. [Google Scholar]
- Wen, C.-Y.; Sethares, W. A. Automatic decentralized clustering for wireless sensor networks. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw 2005, 5, 686–697. [Google Scholar]
- Perrig, A.; Szewczyk, R.; Tygar, J.D.; Wen, V.; Culler, D. E. SPINS: Security protocols for sensor networks. Wirel. Netw 2002, 8, 521–534. [Google Scholar]
- Santi, P. Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; John-Wiley & Sons: Chichester, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
|1. Each sensor initializes a random waiting timer with a value .|
|2. Each sensor encrypts the Plaintext with the Hello message.|
|3. Each sensor transmits the Hello message at random times:|
Draw a sample r from the distribution , where 0 < λ < 0.5 wait r time units and then transmit the Hello.
|4. Each sensor receives the Hello message and decrypts it.|
|if the decrypted Ciphertext is the same as the preload message|
|the sensor is a normal node.|
|(a) the sensor is an anti-node.|
|(b) it should be removed from the neighbor list.|
|5. Establish and update the neighbor identification:|
|if a sensor receives a message of assigning a cluster ID at time step k|
|(a) join the corresponding cluster.|
|(b) draw a sample r′ from the distribution .|
|(c) wait r′ time units and then send an updated Hello message with the new cluster ID.|
|(d) stop the waiting timer. (Stop!)|
|collect neighboring information.|
|6. Decrease the random waiting time according to equation (1).|
|7. Clusterhead check:|
|if WTi = 0 and the neighboring sensors are not in another cluster|
|(a) broadcast itself to be a clusterhead.|
|(b) assign the neighboring sensors to cluster ID i. (Stop!)|
|elseif WTi = 0 and some of the neighboring sensors are in other clusters|
|stand by. (Stop!)|
|go to Step 3.|
|while (sensor ni is a neighboring sensor of mj)|
|if ni is a clusterhead|
|where is the counter of sensor ni for cluster j, with a positive integer α, dnimj is the distance between sensors ni and mj, and R is the transmission range.|
|a) Based on the cluster formation in Phase I, clusterheads broadcast messages to trigger the gateway selection process.|
|b) Initialize a vector of random waiting times , where is the waiting time of sensor ni for cluster j at time step k.|
|c) Initialize a counter of sensor ni, , for gateway selection in cluster i to cluster j.|
|d) Decrease the waiting time|
|e) Gateway check:|
|(1) assign Gij = ni, and then|
|Gij broadcasts the gateway information to its neighbors.|
|(2) set and stop the waiting timer for all neighboring sensors xi in cluster i.|
|go to step d).|
© 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Share and Cite
Hsueh, C.-T.; Li, Y.-W.; Wen, C.-Y.; Ouyang, Y.-C. Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks. Sensors 2010, 10, 1251-1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/s100201251
Hsueh C-T, Li Y-W, Wen C-Y, Ouyang Y-C. Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2010; 10(2):1251-1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/s100201251Chicago/Turabian Style
Hsueh, Ching-Tsung, Yu-Wei Li, Chih-Yu Wen, and Yen-Chieh Ouyang. 2010. "Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks" Sensors 10, no. 2: 1251-1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/s100201251