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Diversity of Rhizobia and Importance of Their Interactions with Legume Trees for Feasibility and Sustainability of the Tropical Agrosystems

1
Postgraduate Program in Agroecology, Maranhão State University, Lourenço Vieira da Silva Avenue, 1000, Jardim São Cristovão, São Luís 65055-310, MA, Brazil
2
Department of Soils, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 07, Seropédica 23890-000, RJ, Brazil
3
Postgraduate Program in Biodiversity and Conservation, Federal University of Maranhão, Portuguese Avenue, 1966, Bacanga, São Luís 65080-805, MA, Brazil
4
Biology Department, Federal University of Maranhão, Portuguese Avenue, 1966, Bacanga, São Luís 65080-805, MA, Brazil
5
Department of Fitotecnia, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 07, Seropédica 23890-000, RJ, Brazil
6
Agricultural Engineering Department/Postgraduate Program in Agroecology, Maranhão State University, Lourenço Vieira da Silva Avenue, 1000, Jardim São Cristovão, São Luís 65055-310, MA, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(5), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12050206
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 22 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 24 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity of Soil Bacterial Communities)
Symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a complex process that involves rhizobia, a diverse group of α and β-proteobacteria bacteria, and legume species. Benefits provided by BNF associated with legume trees in tropical environments include improvements to efficiency of nitrogen (N) use, increase of soil carbon sequestration, stabilization of soil organic matter, decrease of soil penetration resistance, and improvement of soil fertility. All these benefits make BNF a crucial ecosystem service to the sustainability of tropical agriculture. Due to the importance of this ecological process and the high diversity of rhizobia, these bacteria have been extensively characterized worldwide. Currently, over 400 species of rhizobia are known, distributed into seven families. In the humid tropics, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium, and Clitoria fairchildiana are four of the most common species used by family farmers to create sustainable agricultural systems. These four legumes perform symbiosis with different groups of rhizobia. Exploring BNF could help to enable sustainable intensification of agriculture in the humid tropics, mainly because it can increase N use efficiency in an environment where N is a limiting factor to plant growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation; nitrogen; Leucaena leucocephala; Acacia mangium; Gliricidia sepium; Clitoria fairchildiana biological nitrogen fixation; nitrogen; Leucaena leucocephala; Acacia mangium; Gliricidia sepium; Clitoria fairchildiana
MDPI and ACS Style

Moura, E.G.; Carvalho, C.S.; Bucher, C.P.C.; Souza, J.L.B.; Aguiar, A.C.F.; Ferraz Junior, A.S.L.; Bucher, C.A.; Coelho, K.P. Diversity of Rhizobia and Importance of Their Interactions with Legume Trees for Feasibility and Sustainability of the Tropical Agrosystems. Diversity 2020, 12, 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12050206

AMA Style

Moura EG, Carvalho CS, Bucher CPC, Souza JLB, Aguiar ACF, Ferraz Junior ASL, Bucher CA, Coelho KP. Diversity of Rhizobia and Importance of Their Interactions with Legume Trees for Feasibility and Sustainability of the Tropical Agrosystems. Diversity. 2020; 12(5):206. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12050206

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moura, Emanoel G.; Carvalho, Cristina S.; Bucher, Cassia P.C.; Souza, Juliana L.B.; Aguiar, Alana C.F.; Ferraz Junior, Altamiro S.L.; Bucher, Carlos A.; Coelho, Katia P. 2020. "Diversity of Rhizobia and Importance of Their Interactions with Legume Trees for Feasibility and Sustainability of the Tropical Agrosystems" Diversity 12, no. 5: 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12050206

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