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Article

Metabolic, Organoleptic and Transcriptomic Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Linear and Substituted Esters

1
University Bordeaux, ISVV, Unité de Recherche Œnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, Bordeaux INP, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2
Biolaffort, 11 Rue Aristide Bergès, F-33270 Floirac, France
3
Pernod Ricard, 51 Chemin des Mèches, F-94000 Créteil, France
4
University Bordeaux, ISVV, UMR 1287 Ecophysiologie et Génomique Fonctionnelle de la Vigne, 210 Chemin de Leysotte, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andreas Burkovski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084026
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Research in the Post-genomic Era)
Esters constitute a broad family of volatile compounds impacting the organoleptic properties of many beverages, including wine and beer. They can be classified according to their chemical structure. Higher alcohol acetates differ from fatty acid ethyl esters, whereas a third group, substituted ethyl esters, contributes to the fruitiness of red wines. Derived from yeast metabolism, the biosynthesis of higher alcohol acetates and fatty acid ethyl esters has been widely investigated at the enzymatic and genetic levels. As previously reported, two pairs of esterases, respectively encoded by the paralogue genes ATF1 and ATF2, and EEB1 and EHT1, are mostly involved in the biosynthesis of higher alcohol acetates and fatty acid ethyl esters. These esterases have a moderate effect on the biosynthesis of substituted ethyl esters, which depend on mono-acyl lipases encoded by MGL2 and YJU3. The functional characterization of such genes helps to improve our understanding of substituted ester metabolism in the context of wine alcohol fermentation. In order to evaluate the overall sensorial impact of esters, we attempted to produce young red wines without esters by generating a multiple esterase-free strain (Δatf1, Δatf2, Δeeb1, and Δeht1). Surprisingly, it was not possible to obtain the deletion of MGL2 in the Δatf1atf2/Δeeb1/Δeht1 background, highlighting unsuspected genetic incompatibilities between ATF1 and MGL2. A preliminary RNA-seq analysis depicted the overall effect of the Δatf1atf2/Δeeb1/Δeht1 genotype that triggers the expression shift of 1124 genes involved in nitrogen and lipid metabolism, but also chromatin organization and histone acetylation. These findings reveal unsuspected regulatory roles of ester metabolism in genome expression for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: substituted ester metabolism; wine fermentation; MGL2; YJU3; histone acetylation substituted ester metabolism; wine fermentation; MGL2; YJU3; histone acetylation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marullo, P.; Trujillo, M.; Viannais, R.; Hercman, L.; Guillaumie, S.; Colonna-Ceccaldi, B.; Albertin, W.; Barbe, J.-C. Metabolic, Organoleptic and Transcriptomic Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Linear and Substituted Esters. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4026. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084026

AMA Style

Marullo P, Trujillo M, Viannais R, Hercman L, Guillaumie S, Colonna-Ceccaldi B, Albertin W, Barbe J-C. Metabolic, Organoleptic and Transcriptomic Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Linear and Substituted Esters. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):4026. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marullo, Philippe, Marine Trujillo, Rémy Viannais, Lucas Hercman, Sabine Guillaumie, Benoit Colonna-Ceccaldi, Warren Albertin, and Jean-Christophe Barbe. 2021. "Metabolic, Organoleptic and Transcriptomic Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Linear and Substituted Esters" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 4026. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084026

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