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Article

Human Milk Antibodies against S1 and S2 Subunits from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E in Mothers with a Confirmed COVID-19 PCR, Viral SYMPTOMS, and Unexposed Mothers

1
Department of Neonatal Immunology and Microbiology, Medolac Laboratories A Public Benefit Corporation, Boulder City, NV 89005, USA
2
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
3
Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology & Center for Food Allergy, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristina Belizna
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041749
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Molecular Studies in Biology and Chemistry)
Background: Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (p = 0.014) and viral symptom (p = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; passive immunity; immunoglobulins; infectious diseases; breastfeeding; polyreactive antibody; β-coronaviruses; α-coronaviruses; neonates breast milk; passive immunity; immunoglobulins; infectious diseases; breastfeeding; polyreactive antibody; β-coronaviruses; α-coronaviruses; neonates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Demers-Mathieu, V.; DaPra, C.; Mathijssen, G.; Sela, D.A.; Järvinen, K.M.; Seppo, A.; Fels, S.; Medo, E. Human Milk Antibodies against S1 and S2 Subunits from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E in Mothers with a Confirmed COVID-19 PCR, Viral SYMPTOMS, and Unexposed Mothers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1749. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041749

AMA Style

Demers-Mathieu V, DaPra C, Mathijssen G, Sela DA, Järvinen KM, Seppo A, Fels S, Medo E. Human Milk Antibodies against S1 and S2 Subunits from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E in Mothers with a Confirmed COVID-19 PCR, Viral SYMPTOMS, and Unexposed Mothers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1749. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041749

Chicago/Turabian Style

Demers-Mathieu, Veronique, Ciera DaPra, Gabrielle Mathijssen, David A. Sela, Kirsi M. Järvinen, Antti Seppo, Shawn Fels, and Elena Medo. 2021. "Human Milk Antibodies against S1 and S2 Subunits from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E in Mothers with a Confirmed COVID-19 PCR, Viral SYMPTOMS, and Unexposed Mothers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1749. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041749

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