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Article

A Pipeline towards the Biochemical Characterization of the Arabidopsis GT14 Family

1
Sino-Australia Plant Cell Wall Research Centre, The State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, College of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang A & F University, Lin’an 311300, China
2
School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
3
Division of Life Science, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8642, Japan
4
Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
5
La Trobe Institute for Agriculture and Food, School of Life Sciences, Department of Animal, Plant, and Soil Sciences, AgriBio, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Stefano Benini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031360
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 24 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the synthesis of glycosidic linkages and are essential in the biosynthesis of glycans, glycoconjugates (glycolipids and glycoproteins), and glycosides. Plant genomes generally encode many more GTs than animal genomes due to the synthesis of a cell wall and a wide variety of glycosylated secondary metabolites. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome is predicted to encode over 573 GTs that are currently classified into 42 diverse families. The biochemical functions of most of these GTs are still unknown. In this study, we updated the JBEI Arabidopsis GT clone collection by cloning an additional 105 GT cDNAs, 508 in total (89%), into Gateway-compatible vectors for downstream characterization. We further established a functional analysis pipeline using transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) followed by enzymatic assays, fractionation of enzymatic products by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) and characterization by mass spectrometry (MS). Using the GT14 family as an exemplar, we outline a strategy for identifying effective substrates of GT enzymes. By addition of UDP-GlcA as donor and the synthetic acceptors galactose-nitrobenzodiazole (Gal-NBD), β-1,6-galactotetraose (β-1,6-Gal4) and β-1,3-galactopentose (β-1,3-Gal5) to microsomes expressing individual GT14 enzymes, we verified the β-glucuronosyltransferase (GlcAT) activity of three members of this family (AtGlcAT14A, B, and E). In addition, a new family member (AT4G27480, 248) was shown to possess significantly higher activity than other GT14 enzymes. Our data indicate a likely role in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) biosynthesis for these GT14 members. Together, the updated Arabidopsis GT clone collection and the biochemical analysis pipeline present an efficient means to identify and characterize novel GT catalytic activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycosyltransferase; Arabidopsis; plant cell wall; glycosylation; AGP; CAZy glycosyltransferase; Arabidopsis; plant cell wall; glycosylation; AGP; CAZy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xuan, L.; Zhang, J.; Lu, W.; Gluza, P.; Ebert, B.; Kotake, T.; Lu, M.; Zhang, Y.; Clausen, M.H.; Johnson, K.L.; Doblin, M.S.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Bacic, A.; Song, L.; Zeng, W. A Pipeline towards the Biochemical Characterization of the Arabidopsis GT14 Family. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031360

AMA Style

Xuan L, Zhang J, Lu W, Gluza P, Ebert B, Kotake T, Lu M, Zhang Y, Clausen MH, Johnson KL, Doblin MS, Heazlewood JL, Bacic A, Song L, Zeng W. A Pipeline towards the Biochemical Characterization of the Arabidopsis GT14 Family. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xuan, Lingling, Jie Zhang, Weitai Lu, Pawel Gluza, Berit Ebert, Toshihisa Kotake, Mengzhu Lu, Yuan Zhang, Mads H. Clausen, Kim L. Johnson, Monika S. Doblin, Joshua L. Heazlewood, Antony Bacic, Lili Song, and Wei Zeng. 2021. "A Pipeline towards the Biochemical Characterization of the Arabidopsis GT14 Family" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1360. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031360

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