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Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis

St. Catherine Specialty Hospital, 49210 Zabok, Croatia
St. Catherine Specialty Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Nursing, University North, 48000 Varaždin, Croatia
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Clinical Hospital “Sveti Duh”, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
University Hospital “Sisters of Mercy”, Clinic for Traumatology, Draškovićeva 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Health Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Department of Traumatology, Medical University Merkur Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Medical School, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital Dubrava, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Medical School, University of Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Medical School, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Molecular Biology Laboratory, BIA Separations CRO, Labena Ltd., 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Medical School REGIOMED, 96450 Coburg, Germany
Eberly College of Science, State College, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
The Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alfonso Baldi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9208;
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 15 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoarthritis: From Molecular Pathways to Therapeutic Advances)
Osteoarthritis is a common cause of disability worldwide. Although commonly referred to as a disease of the joint cartilage, osteoarthritis affects all joint tissues equally. The pathogenesis of this degenerative process is not completely understood; however, a low-grade inflammation leading to an imbalance between anabolic and katabolic processes is a well-established factor. The complex network of cytokines regulating these processes and cell communication has a central role in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Concentrations of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were found to be altered depending on the osteoarthritis stage and activity. In this review, we analyzed individual cytokines involved in the immune processes with an emphasis on their function in osteoarthritis. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoarthritis; cytokines; chemokines; pathogenesis; inflammation; biomarker osteoarthritis; cytokines; chemokines; pathogenesis; inflammation; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molnar, V.; Matišić, V.; Kodvanj, I.; Bjelica, R.; Jeleč, Ž.; Hudetz, D.; Rod, E.; Čukelj, F.; Vrdoljak, T.; Vidović, D.; Starešinić, M.; Sabalić, S.; Dobričić, B.; Petrović, T.; Antičević, D.; Borić, I.; Košir, R.; Zmrzljak, U.P.; Primorac, D. Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9208.

AMA Style

Molnar V, Matišić V, Kodvanj I, Bjelica R, Jeleč Ž, Hudetz D, Rod E, Čukelj F, Vrdoljak T, Vidović D, Starešinić M, Sabalić S, Dobričić B, Petrović T, Antičević D, Borić I, Košir R, Zmrzljak UP, Primorac D. Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9208.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molnar, Vilim, Vid Matišić, Ivan Kodvanj, Roko Bjelica, Željko Jeleč, Damir Hudetz, Eduard Rod, Fabijan Čukelj, Trpimir Vrdoljak, Dinko Vidović, Mario Starešinić, Srećko Sabalić, Borut Dobričić, Tadija Petrović, Darko Antičević, Igor Borić, Rok Košir, Uršula Prosenc Zmrzljak, and Dragan Primorac. 2021. "Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9208.

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