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Open AccessArticle

Healthspan Maintenance and Prevention of Parkinson’s-like Phenotypes with Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein Aglycone in C. elegans

1
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence, Italy
3
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Area of Medicine and Health of the Child of the University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini, 6 - 50139 Florence, Italy
4
Humboldt University of Berlin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Institute of Biology, Molecular Genetics Group, Philippstr. 13, House 22, 10115 Berlin, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072588
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
Numerous studies highlighted the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) in maintaining health, especially during ageing. Even neurodegeneration, which is part of the natural ageing process, as well as the foundation of ageing-related neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD), was successfully targeted by MD. In this regard, olive oil and its polyphenolic constituents have received increasing attention in the last years. Thus, this study focuses on two main olive oil polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT) and oleuropein aglycone (OLE), and their effects on ageing symptoms with special attention to PD. In order to avoid long-lasting, expensive, and ethically controversial experiments, the established invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was used to test HT and OLE treatments. Interestingly, both polyphenols were able to increase the survival after heat stress, but only HT could prolong the lifespan in unstressed conditions. Furthermore, in aged worms, HT and OLE caused improvements of locomotive behavior and the attenuation of autofluorescence as a marker for ageing. In addition, by using three different C. elegans PD models, HT and OLE were shown i) to enhance locomotion in worms suffering from α-synuclein-expression in muscles or rotenone exposure, ii) to reduce α-synuclein accumulation in muscles cells, and iii) to prevent neurodegeneration in α-synuclein-containing dopaminergic neurons. Hormesis, antioxidative capacities and an activity-boost of the proteasome & phase II detoxifying enzymes are discussed as potential underlying causes for these beneficial effects. Further biological and medical trials are indicated to assess the full potential of HT and OLE and to uncover their mode of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: C. elegans; polyphenols; olive oil; healthspan; lifespan; ageing; Parkinson’s disease C. elegans; polyphenols; olive oil; healthspan; lifespan; ageing; Parkinson’s disease
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Brunetti, G.; Di Rosa, G.; Scuto, M.; Leri, M.; Stefani, M.; Schmitz-Linneweber, C.; Calabrese, V.; Saul, N. Healthspan Maintenance and Prevention of Parkinson’s-like Phenotypes with Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein Aglycone in C. elegans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2588.

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