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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081871

Centella asiatica Protects d-Galactose/AlCl3 Mediated Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Rats via PP2A/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway in Their Hippocampus

1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri 600230, Borno State, Nigeria
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kampus Puncak Alam, Bandar Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Human Anatomy, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Bandar Sungai Long Cheras 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kampus Puncak Alam, Bandar Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe 760211, Gombe State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder more prevalent among the elderly population. AD is characterised clinically by a progressive decline in cognitive functions and pathologically by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and synaptic dysfunction in the brain. Centella asiatica (CA) is a valuable herb being used widely in African, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditional medicine to reverse cognitive impairment and to enhance cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CA in preventing d-galactose/aluminium chloride (d-gal/AlCl3) induced AD-like pathologies and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Results showed that co-administration of CA to d-gal/AlCl3 induced AD-like rat models significantly increased the levels of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) and decreased the levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β). It was further observed that, CA increased the expression of mRNA of Bcl-2, while there was minimal effect on the expression of caspase 3 mRNA. The results also showed that, CA prevented morphological aberrations in the connus ammonis 3 (CA 3) sub-region of the rat’s hippocampus. The results clearly demonstrated for the first time that CA could alleviate d-gal/AlCl3 induced AD-like pathologies in rats via inhibition of hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) bio-synthetic proteins, anti-apoptosis and maintenance of cytoarchitecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Centella asiatica; hippocampus; protein poshophatase 2; glycogen synthase kinase 3; B-cell lymphoma 2 Alzheimer’s disease; Centella asiatica; hippocampus; protein poshophatase 2; glycogen synthase kinase 3; B-cell lymphoma 2
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Chiroma, S.M.; Baharuldin, M.T.H.; Mat Taib, C.N.; Amom, Z.; Jagadeesan, S.; Ilham Adenan, M.; Mahdi, O.; Moklas, M.A.M. Centella asiatica Protects d-Galactose/AlCl3 Mediated Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Rats via PP2A/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway in Their Hippocampus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1871.

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