Next Article in Journal
Advances in Antigenic Peptide-Based Vaccine and Neutralizing Antibodies against Viruses Causing Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Straightforward Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Mapping via Random Mutagenesis and Mammalian Protein Protein Interaction Trap (MAPPIT)
Previous Article in Journal
Extracellular Spermine Activates DNA Methyltransferase 3A and 3B
Previous Article in Special Issue
Shedding Light on the Interaction of Human Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Protein with Ligands through Biophysical and in Silico Studies
Open AccessReview

Thinking Outside the Bug: Molecular Targets and Strategies to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance

1
European Molecular Biology Laboratory Australia (EMBL Australia) Node in Single Molecule Science, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
2
School of Medical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061255
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
  |  
PDF [1830 KB, uploaded 13 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Since their discovery in the early 20th century, antibiotics have been used as the primary weapon against bacterial infections. Due to their prophylactic effect, they are also used as part of the cocktail of drugs given to treat complex diseases such as cancer or during surgery, in order to prevent infection. This has resulted in a decrease of mortality from infectious diseases and an increase in life expectancy in the last 100 years. However, as a consequence of administering antibiotics broadly to the population and sometimes misusing them, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have appeared. The emergence of resistant strains is a global health threat to humanity. Highly-resistant bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant) or Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant) have led to complications in intensive care units, increasing medical costs and putting patient lives at risk. The appearance of these resistant strains together with the difficulty in finding new antimicrobials has alarmed the scientific community. Most of the strategies currently employed to develop new antibiotics point towards novel approaches for drug design based on prodrugs or rational design of new molecules. However, targeting crucial bacterial processes by these means will keep creating evolutionary pressure towards drug resistance. In this review, we discuss antibiotic resistance and new options for antibiotic discovery, focusing in particular on new alternatives aiming to disarm the bacteria or empower the host to avoid disease onset. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; host–pathogen interactions; bacterial effectors; protein–protein interactions; antimicrobial peptides and proteins antibiotic resistance; host–pathogen interactions; bacterial effectors; protein–protein interactions; antimicrobial peptides and proteins
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Monserrat-Martinez, A.; Gambin, Y.; Sierecki, E. Thinking Outside the Bug: Molecular Targets and Strategies to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1255.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top