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Open AccessArticle

The Highly Conserved Barley Powdery Mildew Effector BEC1019 Confers Susceptibility to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens in Wheat

by 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 1,3,4, 3,* and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou 466001, China
2
Henan Engineering Research Center of Grain Crop Genome Editing, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
3
The Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Food Crops, Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
4
Henan Key Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding & Bioreactor, Zhoukou 466001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184376
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 3 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 3.0)
Effector proteins secreted by plant pathogens play important roles in promoting colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC) 1019, a highly conserved metalloprotease of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), is essential for fungal haustorium formation, and silencing BEC1019 significantly reduces Bgh virulence. In this study, we found that BEC1019 homologs in B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) have complete sequence identity with those in Bgh, prompting us to investigate their functions. Transcript levels of BEC1019 were abundantly induced concomitant with haustorium formation in Bgt and necrosis development in Ggt-infected plants. BEC1019 overexpression considerably increased wheat susceptibility to Bgt and Ggt, whereas silencing this gene using host-induced gene silencing significantly enhanced wheat resistance to Bgt and Ggt, which was associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation, cell death, and pathogenesis-related gene expression. Additionally, we found that the full and partial sequences of BEC1019 can trigger cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These results indicate that Bgt and Ggt can utilize BEC1019 as a virulence effector to promote plant colonization, and thus these genes represent promising new targets in breeding wheat cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: effector protein; Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; haustorium formation; necrosis development; cell death effector protein; Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; haustorium formation; necrosis development; cell death
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Xu, K.; Yu, D.; Liu, Z.; Peng, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Dong, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, P.; Guo, T.; Li, C. The Highly Conserved Barley Powdery Mildew Effector BEC1019 Confers Susceptibility to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens in Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184376

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Xu K, Yu D, Liu Z, Peng C, Li X, Zhang J, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Tian P, Guo T, Li C. The Highly Conserved Barley Powdery Mildew Effector BEC1019 Confers Susceptibility to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens in Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(18):4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yi; Xu, Kedong; Yu, Deshui; Liu, Zhihui; Peng, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ju; Dong, Yinghui; Zhang, Yazhen; Tian, Pan; Guo, Tiancai; Li, Chengwei. 2019. "The Highly Conserved Barley Powdery Mildew Effector BEC1019 Confers Susceptibility to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens in Wheat" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 18: 4376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184376

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