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Open AccessReview

Genetic and Epigenetic Control of CDKN1C Expression: Importance in Cell Commitment and Differentiation, Tissue Homeostasis and Human Diseases

1
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
3
CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate S. C. a R. L., 80145 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041055
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 31 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
The CDKN1C gene encodes the p57Kip2 protein which has been identified as the third member of the CIP/Kip family, also including p27Kip1 and p21Cip1. In analogy with these proteins, p57Kip2 is able to bind tightly and inhibit cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and, in turn, modulate cell division cycle progression. For a long time, the main function of p57Kip2 has been associated only to correct embryogenesis, since CDKN1C-ablated mice are not vital. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that CDKN1C alterations cause three human hereditary syndromes, characterized by altered growth rate. Subsequently, the p57Kip2 role in several cell phenotypes has been clearly assessed as well as its down-regulation in human cancers. CDKN1C lies in a genetic locus, 11p15.5, characterized by a remarkable regional imprinting that results in the transcription of only the maternal allele. The control of CDKN1C transcription is also linked to additional mechanisms, including DNA methylation and specific histone methylation/acetylation. Finally, long non-coding RNAs and miRNAs appear to play important roles in controlling p57Kip2 levels. This review mostly represents an appraisal of the available data regarding the control of CDKN1C gene expression. In addition, the structure and function of p57Kip2 protein are briefly described and correlated to human physiology and diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: p57Kip2; CDKN1C; epigenetics; disease; cell differentiation p57Kip2; CDKN1C; epigenetics; disease; cell differentiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stampone, E.; Caldarelli, I.; Zullo, A.; Bencivenga, D.; Mancini, F.P.; Della Ragione, F.; Borriello, A. Genetic and Epigenetic Control of CDKN1C Expression: Importance in Cell Commitment and Differentiation, Tissue Homeostasis and Human Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041055

AMA Style

Stampone E, Caldarelli I, Zullo A, Bencivenga D, Mancini FP, Della Ragione F, Borriello A. Genetic and Epigenetic Control of CDKN1C Expression: Importance in Cell Commitment and Differentiation, Tissue Homeostasis and Human Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stampone, Emanuela; Caldarelli, Ilaria; Zullo, Alberto; Bencivenga, Debora; Mancini, Francesco P.; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Borriello, Adriana. 2018. "Genetic and Epigenetic Control of CDKN1C Expression: Importance in Cell Commitment and Differentiation, Tissue Homeostasis and Human Diseases" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041055

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