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Characterization of Apoptosis, Autophagy and Oxidative Stress in Pancreatic Islets Cells and Intestinal Epithelial Cells Isolated from Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses

1
Department of Experimental Biology, The Faculty of Biology and Animal Science, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
2
PferdePraxis Dr. Med. Vet. Daniel Weiss, Postmatte 14, CH-8807 Freienbach, Switzerland
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Equine Clinic-Equine Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University, 35392 Gießen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103068
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Abstract

Endocrine disorders are becoming an increasing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, more and more horses worldwide have been suffering from equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). This metabolic disorder is characterized by pathological obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Although metabolic disorders, including diabetes, have been extensively studied, there are still no data on the molecular effects of EMS in horses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis, oxidative stress, autophagy and microRNA (miR) expression in multipotent intestinal epithelial stem cells (IECs) and pancreatic islets (PIs) isolated post mortem form healthy and EMS diagnosed horses. Our group was the first to describe how EMS affects IEC and PI aging and senescence. First, we evaluated isolation and culture protocol for these cells and subsequently established their metabolic status in vitro. Both IECs and PIs isolated from EMS horses were characterized by increased apoptosis and senescence. Moreover, they accumulated elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we have observed that autophagy/mitophagy may be a protective mechanism which allows those cells to maintain their physiological function, clear protein aggregates and remove damaged organelles. Furthermore, it may play a crucial role in reducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This protective mechanism may help to overcome the harmful effects of ROS and provide building blocks for protein and ATP synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: equine metabolic syndrome; horses; intestinal cells; pancreatic islets; autophagy equine metabolic syndrome; horses; intestinal cells; pancreatic islets; autophagy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kornicka, K.; Śmieszek, A.; Szłapka-Kosarzewska, J.; Irwin Houston, J.M.; Roecken, M.; Marycz, K. Characterization of Apoptosis, Autophagy and Oxidative Stress in Pancreatic Islets Cells and Intestinal Epithelial Cells Isolated from Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3068.

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