Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models
AbstractAtherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. View Full-Text
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.
Share & Cite This Article
Gargiulo, S.; Gramanzini, M.; Mancini, M. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1511.
Gargiulo S, Gramanzini M, Mancini M. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(9):1511.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello. 2016. "Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 9: 1511.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.