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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1669;

Implications of Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Academic Editor: Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis)
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Most solid tumors contain regions of hypoxia in which increased cell proliferation promotes increased oxygen consumption and the condition is further exacerbated as cancer cells become localized far from a functional blood vessel, further decreasing the oxygen supply. An important mechanism that promotes cell adaptation to hypoxic conditions is the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Hypoxia-inducible factors transcriptionally regulate many genes involved in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Patients, whose primary tumor biopsies show high HIF expression levels, have a greater risk of metastasis. The current review will highlight the potential role of hypoxia in breast cancer metastasis to the bone by considering the regulation of many steps in the metastatic process that include invasion, migration, margination and extravasation, as well as homing signals and regulation of the bone microenvironment. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; breast cancer; metastasis; bone; hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs); invasion; migration hypoxia; breast cancer; metastasis; bone; hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs); invasion; migration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gilkes, D.M. Implications of Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1669.

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