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Article

Development of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to Produce Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Substances from Safflower Seed

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Department of Food Science, Sun Moon University, Natural Science 118, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si 336-708, Korea
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FlexPro Biotechnology, Natural Science 128, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si 336-708, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vito Michele Paradiso, Ângela Fernandes and Marta Igual Ramo
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041296
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 5 February 2022 / Accepted: 13 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to extract bioactive substances with skin-whitening, anti-wrinkle, and antioxidant effects from safflower seeds, and the extraction conditions were optimized by a central composite design. The independent variables, including extraction time (5.0~55.0 min), extraction temperature (26.0~94.0 °C), and ethanol concentration (0.0~100%), were optimized to increase tyrosinase activity inhibitory (TAI), collagenase activity inhibitory (CAI), and radical scavenging activity (RSA), which are indicators of skin-whitening, anti-wrinkle, and antioxidant effects. An extraction time of 26.4 min, extraction temperature of 52.1 °C, and ethanol concentration of 50.7% were found to be optimum conditions of UAE, under which TAI, CAI, and RSA were 53.3%, 91.5%, and 27.7%, respectively. The extract produced by UAE was analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and maleic acid and levulinic acid were identified as the main substances. Therefore, UAE is evaluated as an effective process to extract skin-whitening, anti-wrinkle, and antioxidant substances from safflower seeds at lower temperatures and shorter extraction times compared to the conventional extraction methods. Overall, safflower seeds extract can be used as a material for value-added cosmetics, including maleic acid and levulinic acid, which have bioactive functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: safflower seed; skin-whitening; anti-wrinkle; maleic acid; levulinic acid; ultrasound-assisted extraction; optimization safflower seed; skin-whitening; anti-wrinkle; maleic acid; levulinic acid; ultrasound-assisted extraction; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeom, S.-H.; Gam, D.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-W. Development of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to Produce Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Substances from Safflower Seed. Molecules 2022, 27, 1296. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041296

AMA Style

Yeom S-H, Gam D-H, Kim J-H, Kim J-W. Development of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to Produce Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Substances from Safflower Seed. Molecules. 2022; 27(4):1296. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yeom, Suh-Hee, Da-Hye Gam, Jun-Hee Kim, and Jin-Woo Kim. 2022. "Development of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to Produce Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Substances from Safflower Seed" Molecules 27, no. 4: 1296. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041296

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