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The Microbiome and Its Implications in Cancer Immunotherapy

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Cancer and Mutagenesis Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Academic Editors: Ferdinando Nicoletti, Amedeo Amedei and Elena Niccolai
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010206
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of the Cancer Treatment: The Immunotherapy Next Generation)
Cancer is responsible for ~18 million deaths globally each year, representing a major cause of death. Several types of therapy strategies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and more recently immunotherapy, have been implemented in treating various types of cancer. Microbes have recently been found to be both directly and indirectly involved in cancer progression and regulation, and studies have provided novel and clear insights into the microbiome-mediated emergence of cancers. Scientists around the globe are striving hard to identify and characterize these microbes and the underlying mechanisms by which they promote or suppress various kinds of cancer. Microbes may influence immunotherapy by blocking various cell cycle checkpoints and the production of certain metabolites. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand the role of these microbes in the promotion and suppression of cancer. The identification of microbes may help in the development of future diagnostic tools to cure cancers possibly associated with the microbiome. This review mainly focuses on various microbes and their association with different types of cancer, responses to immunotherapeutic modulation, physiological responses, and prebiotic and postbiotic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; cancer progression and microbes; physiological responses; CTLA-4; immunotherapy; immuno-oncology microbiome; cancer progression and microbes; physiological responses; CTLA-4; immunotherapy; immuno-oncology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choudhry, H. The Microbiome and Its Implications in Cancer Immunotherapy. Molecules 2021, 26, 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010206

AMA Style

Choudhry H. The Microbiome and Its Implications in Cancer Immunotherapy. Molecules. 2021; 26(1):206. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010206

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choudhry, Hani. 2021. "The Microbiome and Its Implications in Cancer Immunotherapy" Molecules 26, no. 1: 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010206

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