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Tackling Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy: What Do We Know?

1
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 16424, Indonesia
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amedeo Amedei
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4096; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184096
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 30 August 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of the Cancer Treatment: The Immunotherapy Next Generation)
Cancer treatment has evolved tremendously in the last few decades. Immunotherapy has been considered to be the forth pillar in cancer treatment in addition to conventional surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Though immunotherapy has resulted in impressive response, it is generally limited to a small subset of patients. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance toward cancer immunotherapy may shed new light to counter that resistance. In this review, we highlighted and summarized two major hurdles (recognition and attack) of cancer elimination by the immune system. The mechanisms of failure of some available immunotherapy strategies were also described. Moreover, the significance role of immune compartment for various established cancer treatments were also elucidated in this review. Then, the mechanisms of combinatorial treatment of various conventional cancer treatment with immunotherapy were discussed. Finally, a strategy to improve immune cancer killing by characterizing cancer immune landscape, then devising treatment based on that cancer immune landscape was put forward. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune escape; cancer; immunotherapy; T cell; immunosuppression; antigen presentation; immune checkpoint; resistance; treatment immune escape; cancer; immunotherapy; T cell; immunosuppression; antigen presentation; immune checkpoint; resistance; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gondhowiardjo, S.A.; Handoko; Jayalie, V.F.; Apriantoni, R.; Barata, A.R.; Senoaji, F.; Utami, I.J.W.; Maubere, F.; Nuryadi, E.; Giselvania, A. Tackling Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy: What Do We Know? Molecules 2020, 25, 4096. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184096

AMA Style

Gondhowiardjo SA, Handoko, Jayalie VF, Apriantoni R, Barata AR, Senoaji F, Utami IJW, Maubere F, Nuryadi E, Giselvania A. Tackling Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy: What Do We Know? Molecules. 2020; 25(18):4096. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184096

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gondhowiardjo, Soehartati A., Handoko, Vito F. Jayalie, Riyan Apriantoni, Andreas R. Barata, Fajar Senoaji, IGAA J.W. Utami, Ferdinand Maubere, Endang Nuryadi, and Angela Giselvania. 2020. "Tackling Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy: What Do We Know?" Molecules 25, no. 18: 4096. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184096

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