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Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines

1
Department of Monogastric Animal Sciences, Division of Animal Nutrition and Food, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, 29 Klemensa Janickiego, 71270 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 21 Mickiewicza, 31120 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5173; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215173
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
The aims of the present work are to estimate the nutritional value and to evaluate and compare the levels of macroelements (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg), microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), heavy metals (Co, Cd, Pb, Mo, Cr, Ni), and their ratios in extruded complete foods for adult dogs, their compatibility with nutritional guidelines, as well as food profile similarity. Basic composition was determined according to Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Analyses for elements were performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the evaluated dry dog foods met the minimum recommended levels for protein and fat. Eighteen tested dog foods (60%) did not meet at least one recommendation of nutritional guidelines. Four dog foods exceeded the legal limit of Fe and five foods exceeded the legal limit of Zn; in one of them, Zn level was almost twice higher. Dog foods with insect protein exceeded the legal limit for Mn content. Eight dog foods had an inappropriate Ca:P ratio. Heavy metals were below detection limit in all analyzed dog foods. The results seem to show the need for regular feed analyses of the elemental composition in raw materials before introducing supplementation and for the monitoring of the mineral composition of finished pet food. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparison analysis; element ratios; extruded dog food; ingredients; macroelements; microelements; mineral profile; nutritional value comparison analysis; element ratios; extruded dog food; ingredients; macroelements; microelements; mineral profile; nutritional value
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kazimierska, K.; Biel, W.; Witkowicz, R. Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines. Molecules 2020, 25, 5173. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215173

AMA Style

Kazimierska K, Biel W, Witkowicz R. Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines. Molecules. 2020; 25(21):5173. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215173

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kazimierska, Katarzyna; Biel, Wioletta; Witkowicz, Robert. 2020. "Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines" Molecules 25, no. 21: 5173. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215173

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