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Effect of Nanocrystallization of Anthocyanins Extracted from Two Types of Red-Fleshed Apple Varieties on Its Stability and Antioxidant Activity
Open AccessArticle

New Functional Ingredients Based on Microencapsulation of Aqueous Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts Derived from Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunărea de Jos University of Galati, Romania, 111, Domnească Street, 800201 Galati, Romania
National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, 296, Splaiul Independentei, 060031 Bucharest, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María Pilar Almajano
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3389;
Received: 24 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Chemistry and Applications)
The aqueous anthocyanin-rich extract derived from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) was encapsulated by freeze drying using milk proteins and peptides as coating materials. The molecular modelling approach indicated that all major casein fractions and whey proteins were able to bind at least one anthocyanin molecule. The hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding across the interfaces appeared to be mainly responsible for the stabilizations of the complexes formed between the coating material and bioactive compounds. Two dark purple colored powders, differentiated by the ratio of the encapsulation materials used, rich in phytochemicals were obtained, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 99%. The powders were tested for antioxidant activity, cytocompatibility, and thermal stability. The morphological structure of the powders highlighted the presence of encapsulated anthocyanins. Both powders showed a remarkable antioxidant activity of about 46 mM Trolox/g D.W., and cytocompatibility on the L929 fibroblast culture. At certain concentrations, both powders stimulated cell proliferation. The powders showed a good thermal stability between 75 and 100 °C for 15 min. The powders were tested in a food model system and checked for stability of phytochemicals during storage. The added value of the powders was demonstrated throughout the antioxidant activity, which remained unchanged during storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; black rice; encapsulation; in silico; added value anthocyanins; black rice; encapsulation; in silico; added value
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Aprodu, I.; Milea, Ș.A.; Anghel, R.-M.; Enachi, E.; Barbu, V.; Crăciunescu, O.; Râpeanu, G.; Bahrim, G.E.; Oancea, A.; Stănciuc, N. New Functional Ingredients Based on Microencapsulation of Aqueous Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts Derived from Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Molecules 2019, 24, 3389.

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