Next Article in Journal
The Properties and Tortilla Making of Corn Flour from Enzymatic Wet-Milling
Next Article in Special Issue
Platycodigenin as Potential Drug Candidate for Alzheimer’s Disease via Modulating Microglial Polarization and Neurite Regeneration
Previous Article in Journal
Bacterial Lipid II Analogs: Novel In Vitro Substrates for Mammalian Oligosaccharyl Diphosphodolichol Diphosphatase (DLODP) Activities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Natural Products in Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy: Would Old Therapeutic Approaches Fix the Broken Promise of Modern Medicines?
Open AccessArticle

Neuroprotective Effects of Red Ginseng Saponins in Scopolamine-Treated Rats and Activity Screening Based on Pharmacokinetics

Institute of Special Wild Economic Animals and Plants, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Changchun 130112, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Solomon Habtemariam
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112136
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products in Alzheimer’s Disease Drug Discovery)
Ginseng has been used to alleviate age-related dementia and memory deterioration for thousands of years. This study investigated the protective effect of red ginseng saponins against scopolamine-induced cerebral injury. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides in normal and scopolamine-treated rats were compared. After scopolamine injection, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased when compared with control group. Compared with SA group, pretreatment of rats with red ginseng saponins could increase glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase level. Treatment with red ginseng saponins significantly decreased malondialdehyde level. In the pharmacokinetic analysis, a pattern recognition analysis method was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the absorbed compounds in blood. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Rg1, Rg2, Rh3, Rg5 and Rk1 in model group had higher area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) values; area under the curve (AUC) values and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of model group was significantly different from that of normal group (p < 0.05). The Cmax value of Rk3, Rh1, Rh2 and Rh4 in model group was higher than normal group, but their AUC values were not significantly different. There was no significantly difference in time at Cmax (Tmax), AUC and Cmax values of Rb1, Rb2 Re, Rc, Rd and Rf between the model and normal group. 16 ginsenosides were grouped into three separate clusters according to principal component analysis (PCA) score plot based on pharmacokinetic data. The results suggested red ginseng saponins have significant protective effect against scopolamine-induced memory deficit and scopolamine-induced rats could lead to the changes of pharmacokinetic behaviors of ginsenosides. View Full-Text
Keywords: scopolamine; pharmacokinetics; red ginseng saponins; neuroprotective; ginsenosides scopolamine; pharmacokinetics; red ginseng saponins; neuroprotective; ginsenosides
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, J.; Li, M.; Qu, D.; Sun, Y. Neuroprotective Effects of Red Ginseng Saponins in Scopolamine-Treated Rats and Activity Screening Based on Pharmacokinetics. Molecules 2019, 24, 2136.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop