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Open AccessArticle

Inactivation of Venom PLA2 Alleviates Myonecrosis and Facilitates Muscle Regeneration in Envenomed Mice: A Time Course Observation

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1911;
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Snake venom is a complex cocktail of toxins which induces a series of clinical and pathophysiological manifestations in victims, including severe local tissue damage and systemic alterations. Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) ranks among the “big four” life-threatening venomous species in China, whose venom possesses strong myotoxicity and hematotoxicity that often lead to permanent disability or muscle atrophy. Varespladib, an inhibitor of mammalian phospholipase A2 (PLA2), has been recently reproposed as an effective antidote against snakebite envenomation. The present study aimed at evaluating the protective role of varespladib on muscle regeneration in envenomed mice. Mice were grouped and subjected to inoculation with D. acutus venom or a mixture of venom and varespladib or control vehicle in the gastrocnemius muscle. Local injuries including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, ulceration, and systemic damages including general dysfunction, visceral failure, and inflammatory responses were observed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. The results indicated that most of the muscle myonecrosis and hemorrhage were alleviated by varespladib. Besides, the pretreated mice recovered rapidly with lesser atrophy and muscle fibrosis. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that varespladib is an effective antidote that could neutralize D. acutus venom and allow for earlier and improved rehabilitation outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: varespladib; muscle regeneration; Deinagkistrodon acutus; fibrosis varespladib; muscle regeneration; Deinagkistrodon acutus; fibrosis
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Xiao, H.; Li, H.; Zhang, D.; Li, Y.; Sun, S.; Huang, C. Inactivation of Venom PLA2 Alleviates Myonecrosis and Facilitates Muscle Regeneration in Envenomed Mice: A Time Course Observation. Molecules 2018, 23, 1911.

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