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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081893

Comprehensive Snake Venomics of the Okinawa Habu Pit Viper, Protobothrops flavoviridis, by Complementary Mass Spectrometry-Guided Approaches

1
Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Marc Sabatier
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract

The Asian world is home to a multitude of venomous and dangerous snakes, which are used to induce various medical effects in the preparation of traditional snake tinctures and alcoholics, like the Japanese snake wine, named Habushu. The aim of this work was to perform the first quantitative proteomic analysis of the Protobothrops flavoviridis pit viper venom. Accordingly, the venom was analyzed by complimentary bottom-up and top-down mass spectrometry techniques. The mass spectrometry-based snake venomics approach revealed that more than half of the venom is composed of different phospholipases A2 (PLA2). The combination of this approach and an intact mass profiling led to the identification of the three main Habu PLA2s. Furthermore, nearly one-third of the total venom consists of snake venom metalloproteinases and disintegrins, and several minor represented toxin families were detected: C-type lectin-like proteins (CTL), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), snake venom serine proteases (svSP), l-amino acid oxidases (LAAO), phosphodiesterase (PDE) and 5′-nucleotidase. Finally, the venom of P. flavoviridis contains certain bradykinin-potentiating peptides and related peptides, like the svMP inhibitors, pEKW, pEQW, pEEW and pENW. In preliminary MTT cytotoxicity assays, the highest cancerous-cytotoxicity of crude venom was measured against human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and shows disintegrin-like effects in some fractions. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venomics; viperidae; Protobothrops flavoviridis; Habu pit viper; bottom-up; top-down; BPP; tripeptide metalloprotease inhibitor; cytotoxicity snake venomics; viperidae; Protobothrops flavoviridis; Habu pit viper; bottom-up; top-down; BPP; tripeptide metalloprotease inhibitor; cytotoxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Damm, M.; Hempel, B.-F.; Nalbantsoy, A.; Süssmuth, R.D. Comprehensive Snake Venomics of the Okinawa Habu Pit Viper, Protobothrops flavoviridis, by Complementary Mass Spectrometry-Guided Approaches. Molecules 2018, 23, 1893.

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