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Identification of Volatile Compounds and Selection of Discriminant Markers for Elephant Dung Coffee Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

1
Chromatographic Separation and Flavor Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Center of Molecular Sensory Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Sensor Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
4
Betagro Science Center Co., Ltd., Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081910
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

Elephant dung coffee (Black Ivory Coffee) is a unique Thai coffee produced from Arabica coffee cherries consumed by Asian elephants and collected from their feces. In this work, elephant dung coffee and controls were analyzed using static headspace gas chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry (SHS GC-MS), and chemometric approaches were applied for multivariate analysis and the selection of marker compounds that are characteristic of the coffee. Seventy-eight volatile compounds belonging to 13 chemical classes were tentatively identified, including six alcohols, five aldehydes, one carboxylic acid, three esters, 17 furans, one furanone, 13 ketones, two oxazoles, four phenolic compounds, 14 pyrazines, one pyridine, eight pyrroles and three sulfur-containing compounds. Moreover, four potential discriminant markers of elephant dung coffee, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-furfurylfuran and 3-penten-2-one were established. The proposed method may be useful for elephant dung coffee authentication and quality control. View Full-Text
Keywords: elephant dung coffee; volatile compound; discriminant marker; SHS GC-MS; chemometrics; coffee authentication elephant dung coffee; volatile compound; discriminant marker; SHS GC-MS; chemometrics; coffee authentication
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Thammarat, P.; Kulsing, C.; Wongravee, K.; Leepipatpiboon, N.; Nhujak, T. Identification of Volatile Compounds and Selection of Discriminant Markers for Elephant Dung Coffee Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics. Molecules 2018, 23, 1910.

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