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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010152

Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production

1
Separation Science and Metabolomics Laboratory, 90 South Street, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
2
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
3
School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
Current Address: Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada.
Current Address: Institute für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2973 KB, uploaded 12 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented. Non-targeted SPME-GCMS analyses of the wines showed that several medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters were more abundant in wines made by fermenting model musts spiked with certain fractions. Further fractionation of the non-polar fractions and fermentation of model must after addition of these fractions led to the identification of a mixture of polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that, when added to fermenting model must, increase the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters in wines. Dosage-response fermentation studies with commercially-available trilinolein revealed that the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters can be increased by the addition of this triacylglyceride to model musts. This work suggests that grape triacylglycerides can enhance the production of fermentation-derived ethyl esters and show that this fractionation method is effective in segregating precursors or factors involved in altering the concentration of fermentation volatiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapes; wine; fractionation; ester; SPME-GCMS; chromatography; aroma; fermentation; triacylglycerides grapes; wine; fractionation; ester; SPME-GCMS; chromatography; aroma; fermentation; triacylglycerides
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Blackford, C.L.; Dennis, E.G.; Keyzers, R.A.; Schueuermann, C.; Trengove, R.D.; Boss, P.K. Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production. Molecules 2018, 23, 152.

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