Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are characterized by their narrow-spectrum, non-thermal photon emission, greater longevity, and energy-saving characteristics, which are better than traditional light sources. LEDs thus hold the potential to revolutionize horticulture lighting technology for crop production, protection, and preservation. Exposure to different LED wavelengths can induce the synthesis of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, which in turn can improve the nutritional quality of horticultural crops. Similarly, LEDs increase the nutrient contents, reduce microbial contamination, and alter the ripening of postharvest fruits and vegetables. LED-treated agronomic products can be beneficial for human health due to their good nutrient value and high antioxidant properties. Besides that, the non-thermal properties of LEDs make them easy to use in closed-canopy or within-canopy lighting systems. Such configurations minimize electricity consumption by maintaining optimal incident photon fluxes. Interestingly, red, blue, and green LEDs can induce systemic acquired resistance in various plant species against fungal pathogens. Hence, when seasonal clouds restrict sunlight, LEDs can provide a controllable, alternative source of selected single or mixed wavelength photon source in greenhouse conditions.
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