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Article

Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization

1
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Milling & Processing Unit, Engineering & Processing Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19936-19946; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119666
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Novel Approaches)
In the present study, tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) nanoemulsions were produced as an alternative approach to improve solubility and absorption of tocotrienols. In the present study, droplet size obtained after 10 cycles of homogenization with increasing pressure was found to decrease from 120 to 65.1 nm. Nanoemulsions stabilized with Tween series alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w) homogenized at 25,000 psi and 10 cycles, produced droplet size less than 100 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index (PDI) value lower than 0.2. However blend of Tween series with Span 80 produced nanoemulsions with droplet size larger than 200 nm. This work has also demonstrated the amount of tocols losses in TRF nanoemulsion stabilized Tweens alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w) ranged between 3%–25%. This can be attributed to the interfacial film formed surrounding the droplets exhibited different level of oxidative stability against heat and free radicals created during high pressure emulsification. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; microfluidization; tocotrienols; nonionic emulsifiers nanoemulsion; microfluidization; tocotrienols; nonionic emulsifiers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goh, P.S.; Ng, M.H.; Choo, Y.M.; Amru, N.B.; Chuah, C.H. Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization. Molecules 2015, 20, 19936-19946. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119666

AMA Style

Goh PS, Ng MH, Choo YM, Amru NB, Chuah CH. Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization. Molecules. 2015; 20(11):19936-19946. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119666

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goh, Pik Seah, Mei Han Ng, Yuen May Choo, Nasrulhaq Boyce Amru, and Cheng Hock Chuah. 2015. "Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization" Molecules 20, no. 11: 19936-19946. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119666

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