Next Article in Journal
Dynamics Analysis of a Nonlinear Stochastic SEIR Epidemic System with Varying Population Size
Previous Article in Journal
Transition of Transient Channel Flow with High Reynolds Number Ratios
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2018, 20(5), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050377

Characterization of the Stroke-Induced Changes in the Variability and Complexity of Handgrip Force

1
School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
Guangdong Medical Devices Quality Surveillance and Test Institute, Guangzhou 510275, China
3
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Complexity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1489 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Introduction: The variability and complexity of handgrip forces in various modulations were investigated to identify post-stroke changes in force modulation, and extend our understanding of stroke-induced deficits. Methods: Eleven post-stroke subjects and ten age-matched controls performed voluntary grip force control tasks (power-grip tasks) at three contraction levels, and stationary dynamometer holding tasks (stationary holding tasks). Variability and complexity were described with root mean square jerk (RMS-jerk) and fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn), respectively. Force magnitude, Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment and Wolf motor function test were also evaluated. Results: Comparing the affected side with the controls, fApEn was significantly decreased and RMS-jerk increased across the three levels in power-grip tasks, and fApEn was significantly decreased in stationary holding tasks. There were significant strong correlations between RMS-jerk and clinical scales in power-grip tasks. Discussion: Abnormal neuromuscular control, altered mechanical properties, and atrophic motoneurons could be the main causes of the differences in complexity and variability in post-stroke subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: force modulation; stroke; grip control; fuzzy approximate entropy; root mean square jerk force modulation; stroke; grip control; fuzzy approximate entropy; root mean square jerk
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, P.; Wu, Y.; Liang, J.; Ye, Y.; Liu, H.; Yan, T.; Song, R. Characterization of the Stroke-Induced Changes in the Variability and Complexity of Handgrip Force. Entropy 2018, 20, 377.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top