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Open AccessArticle

Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems

by Hui Li 1,*, Li-Ying Hao 1,2,* and Rong Chen 1
Information Science and Technology College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China
College of Information Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: J. A. Tenreiro Machado and António M. Lopes
Entropy 2016, 18(5), 178;
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Complexity)
We present a multi-level formation model for complex software systems. The previous works extract the software systems to software networks for further studies, but usually investigate the software networks at the class level. In contrast to these works, our treatment of software systems as multi-level networks is more realistic. In particular, the software networks are organized by three levels of granularity, which represents the modularity and hierarchy in the formation process of real-world software systems. More importantly, simulations based on this model have generated more realistic structural properties of software networks, such as power-law, clustering and modularization. On the basis of this model, how the structure of software systems effects software design principles is then explored, and it could be helpful for understanding software evolution and software engineering practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-level; software networks; software evolution; modularity multi-level; software networks; software evolution; modularity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Hao, L.-Y.; Chen, R. Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems. Entropy 2016, 18, 178.

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