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Topical Collection "Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health"

A topical collection in Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This collection belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Editor

Collection Editor
Dr. Sven Dänicke

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany
E-Mail
Interests: Animal nutrition; Mycotoxins: Toxicology, toxic effects and transfer from feed to food; Immuno-Nutrition

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mold genus Fusarium is capable of forming a variety of secondary metabolites, termed as Fusarium toxins due to their adverse effects on higher organisms. It is noteworthy that this group of toxins is chemically, and consequently toxicodynamically, quite diverse, although they are formed by the same mold genus. Even if the exact numbers are not known, it can be assumed that Fusarium toxins contaminate the annual worldwide cereal harvests to a large extent. Besides the direct plant yield losses due to Fusarium infection, the concern of grain contamination by Fusarium toxins arises from their frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant levels. Grains and processed grains which are used as feed- and food-stuffs might retain their original toxin levels as “harvested” from the field, but might be altered in concentration and nature, giving rise to modified Fusarium toxins with changed toxicological properties. Interactions between Fusarium toxins need to be taken into further consideration because most Fusarium species are capable of forming more than one toxin. Feed and food constituents, as well as the diet composition, might also influence the overall Fusarium toxin effects. Moreover, the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of synthesis of Fusarium toxins might help to identify new metabolites acting eventually as mycotoxins, and offer opportunities to develop biotechnological strategies as preventive tools.

Overall, the relevance of Fusarium toxins has long been recognized by organizations involved in risk characterization, evaluation and management, including the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Commission (EC). These agencies established various recommendations, such as tolerable daily intakes by humans (TDI) or guidance values for critical concentrations of mycotoxins in feed, and official European regulations for upper limits for various mycotoxins in food and feed. It needs to be stressed however, that not all above-mentioned aspects could be considered so far in the risk handling process. Therefore, the ongoing need for qualification of this process requires action in various fields of research on Fusarium toxins. Topics of this Topical Collection on the relevance of Fusarium toxins include therefore:

  • Biosynthesis
  • Interactions between Fusarium toxins and between particular toxins and feed/food constituents
  • Analytical methods for feed, physiological specimens and food
  • Diagnostics of exposure and intoxication
  • Occurrence and epidemiology of exposure of humans and animals
  • Toxicological mechanisms
  • Toxic effects in humans and animals
  • Transfer from feed to food of animal origin
  • Counteracting and preventive measures

Dr. Sven Dänicke
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • secondary metabolism
  • biosynthetic pathways
  • fungi
  • toxicology
  • food safety
  • feed safety
  • human health
  • animal health

Published Papers (31 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessArticle Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X
Toxins 2017, 9(11), 337; doi:10.3390/toxins9110337
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
The type B trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX) are structurally related secondary metabolites frequently produced by Fusarium on wheat. Consequently, DON, NIV and FX contaminate wheat dusts, exposing grain workers to toxins by inhalation. Those trichothecenes at low, relevant,
[...] Read more.
The type B trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX) are structurally related secondary metabolites frequently produced by Fusarium on wheat. Consequently, DON, NIV and FX contaminate wheat dusts, exposing grain workers to toxins by inhalation. Those trichothecenes at low, relevant, exposition concentrations have differential effects on intestinal cells, but whether such differences exist with respiratory cells is mostly unknown, while it is required to assess the combined risk of exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of DON, NIV and FX alone or in combination on the viability and IL-6 and IL-8-inducing capacity of human epithelial cells representative of the respiratory tract: primary human airway epithelial cells of nasal (hAECN) and bronchial (hAECB) origin, and immortalized human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. We report that A549 cells are particularly resistant to the cytotoxic effects of mycotoxins. FX is more toxic than DON and NIV for all epithelial cell types. Nasal and bronchial primary cells are more sensitive than bronchial and alveolar cell lines to combined mycotoxin mixtures at low concentrations, although they are less sensitive to mycotoxins alone. Interactions between mycotoxins at low concentrations are rarely additive and are observed only for DON/NIV and NIV/FX on hAECB cells and DON/NIV/FX on A549 cells. Most interactions at low mycotoxin concentrations are synergistic, antagonistic interactions being observed only for DON/FX on hAECB, DON/NIV on 16HBE14o- and NIV/FX on A549 cells. DON, NIV and FX induce, albeit at different levels, IL-6 and IL-8 release by all cell types. However, NIV and FX at concentrations of low cytotoxicity induce IL-6 release by hAECB and A549 cells, and IL-8 release by hAECN cells. Overall, these data suggest that combined exposure to mycotoxins at low concentrations have a stronger effect on primary nasal epithelial cells than on bronchial epithelial cells and activate different inflammatory pathways. This information is particularly relevant for future studies about the hazard of occupational exposure to mycotoxins by inhalation and its impact on the respiratory tract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chronic Exposure to the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol: Impact on Performance, Immune Organ, and Intestinal Integrity of Slow-Growing Chickens
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 334; doi:10.3390/toxins9100334
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the long-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) consumption on avian growth performance, on the proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA damage of spleen cells, and on intestinal integrity. Two hundred and eight 5-day-old black-feathered Taiwan country chickens were fed diets containing 0, 2,
[...] Read more.
This study investigates the long-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) consumption on avian growth performance, on the proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA damage of spleen cells, and on intestinal integrity. Two hundred and eight 5-day-old black-feathered Taiwan country chickens were fed diets containing 0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg of DON for 16 weeks. Body weight gain of male birds in the 2 mg/kg group was significantly lower than that in the 5 mg/kg group. At the end of trial, feeding DON-contaminated diets of 5 mg/kg resulted in heavier spleens. Moreover, the increase in DON induced cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA damage signals in the spleen, the exception being female birds fed 10 mg/kg of DON showing reduced proliferation. Expression of claudin-5 was increased in jejunum of female birds fed 2 and 5 mg/kg of DON, whereas decreased expression levels were found in male birds. In conclusion, our results verified that DON may cause a disturbance to the immune system and alter the intestinal barrier in Taiwan country chickens, and may also lead to discrepancies in growth performances in a dose- and sex-dependent manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 294; doi:10.3390/toxins9100294
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd)
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd) from fattening female Japanese Black (JB) cattle herds (23 months old, 550–600 kg). Herd 1 had persistently high urinary ZEN and STC concentrations due to the presence of contaminated rice straw. Herd 2, the second female JB fattening herd (23 months old, 550–600 kg), received the same dietary feed as Herd 1, with non-contaminated rice straw. Urine samples were collected from Herd 1, two weeks after the contaminated rice straw was replaced with uncontaminated rice straw (Herd 1N). Identified metabolites were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA. The PCA revealed that the effects on cattle metabolites depended on ZEN and STC concentrations. The contamination of cattle feed with multiple mycotoxins may alter systemic metabolic processes, including metabolites associated with ATP generation, amino acids, glycine-conjugates, organic acids, and purine bases. The results obtained from Herd 1N indicate that a two-week remedy period was not sufficient to improve the levels of urinary metabolites, suggesting that chronic contamination with mycotoxins may have long-term harmful effects on the systemic metabolism of cattle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sinapic Acid Affects Phenolic and Trichothecene Profiles of F. culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto
Toxins 2017, 9(9), 264; doi:10.3390/toxins9090264
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plant-derived compounds for reducing the mycotoxin load in food and feed have become a rapidly developing research field of importance for plant breeding efforts and in the search for natural fungicides. In this study, toxigenic strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu
[...] Read more.
Plant-derived compounds for reducing the mycotoxin load in food and feed have become a rapidly developing research field of importance for plant breeding efforts and in the search for natural fungicides. In this study, toxigenic strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to sinapic acid on solid YES media at levels close to those reported in wheat bran. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was decreased by exogenous sinapic acid. Strains exposed to the lowest doses of sinapic acid showed more efficient reduction of phenolic acid production than fungi kept at higher concentrations of this compound. Fungi reduced exogenous sinapic acid, leading to the formation of syringic aldehyde. Treatment with sinapic acid led to a dramatic accumulation of its parent compound ferulic acid, presumably due to inhibition of the further conversion of this phenolic compound. Exogenous sinapic acid decreased the production of trichothecenes by fungi. Higher doses of sinapic acid resulted in more efficient reduction of mycotoxin accumulation in the media. Gene expression studies of Tri genes responsible for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri4, Tri5 and Tri10) proved that the inhibition of mycotoxin production by sinapic acid occurred at the transcriptional level. Fusaria respond to sinapic acid by stimulation of ergosterol biosynthesis. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sex Is a Determinant for Deoxynivalenol Metabolism and Elimination in the Mouse
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 240; doi:10.3390/toxins9080240
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on prior observations that deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicity is sex-dependent, we compared metabolism and clearance of this toxin in male and female mice. Following intraperitoneal challenge with 1 mg/kg bw DON, the dose used in the aforementioned toxicity study, ELISA and LC–MS/MS analyses
[...] Read more.
Based on prior observations that deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicity is sex-dependent, we compared metabolism and clearance of this toxin in male and female mice. Following intraperitoneal challenge with 1 mg/kg bw DON, the dose used in the aforementioned toxicity study, ELISA and LC–MS/MS analyses revealed that by 24 h, most DON and DON metabolites were excreted via urine (49–86%) as compared to feces (1.2–8.3%). Females excreted DON and its principal metabolites (DON-3-, DON-8,15 hemiketal-8-, and iso-DON-8-glucuronides) in urine more rapidly than males. Metabolite concentrations were typically 2 to 4 times higher in the livers and kidneys of males than females from 1 to 4 h after dosing. Trace levels of DON-3-sulfate and DON-15-sulfate were found in urine, liver and kidneys from females but not males. Fecal excretion of DON and DON sulfonates was approximately 2-fold greater in males than females. Finally, decreased DON clearance rates in males could not be explained by glucuronidation activities in liver and kidney microsomes. To summarize, increased sensitivity of male mice to DON’s toxic effects as compared to females corresponds to decreased ability to clear the toxin via urine but did not appear to result from differences in toxin metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Occurrence of Zearalenone in South Korean Feedstuffs between 2009 and 2016
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 223; doi:10.3390/toxins9070223
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence of zearalenone in feedstuffs (compound feeds, feed ingredients) between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea to obtain information on zearalenone contamination in feeds for management. A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. The levels of zearalenone were analyzed every year by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after pretreatment with an immunoaffinity column showing limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1–3 μg/kg and 0.3–8 μg/kg, respectively. Four feed samples out of 494 compound feeds exceeded the EU and South Korea commission regulations over the eight-year test period, and no feed ingredients exceeded the guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle trans-Cinnamic and Chlorogenic Acids Affect the Secondary Metabolic Profiles and Ergosterol Biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 198; doi:10.3390/toxins9070198
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plant-derived compounds limiting mycotoxin contamination are currently of major interest in food and feed production. However, their potential application requires an evaluation of their effects on fungal secondary metabolism and membrane effects. In this study, different strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum
[...] Read more.
Plant-derived compounds limiting mycotoxin contamination are currently of major interest in food and feed production. However, their potential application requires an evaluation of their effects on fungal secondary metabolism and membrane effects. In this study, different strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids on solid YES media. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was lowered by exogenous phenolic compounds. In addition, fungi reduced exogenous phenolic acids, leading either to their conversion or degradation. trans-Cinnamic acid was converted to caffeic and ferulic acids, while chlorogenic acid was degraded to caffeic acid. The latter underwent further degradation to protocatechuic acid. Fungal-derived trans-cinnamic acid, as the first intermediate of the shikimate pathway, increased after chlorogenic acid treatment, presumably due to the further inhibition of the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid. Exogenous trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid displayed the inhibition of mycotoxin production by Fusaria, which appeared to be largely dependent on the phenolic compound and its concentration and the assayed strain. Exogenous phenolic acids showed different effects on ergosterol biosynthesis by fungi. It was found that the production of this membrane sterol was stimulated by trans-cinnamic acid, while chlorogenic acid negatively impacted ergosterol biosynthesis, suggesting that phenolic acids with stronger antifungal activities may upregulate ergosterol biosynthesis by Fusaria. This paper reports on the production of phenolic acids by Fusaria for the first time. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Metabolism of Zearalenone and Its Major Modified Forms in Pigs
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 56; doi:10.3390/toxins9020056
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) can be conjugated with polar molecules, like sugars or sulfates, by plants and fungi. To date, the fate of these modified forms of ZEN has not yet been elucidated in animals. In order to investigate whether ZEN conjugates
[...] Read more.
The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) can be conjugated with polar molecules, like sugars or sulfates, by plants and fungi. To date, the fate of these modified forms of ZEN has not yet been elucidated in animals. In order to investigate whether ZEN conjugates contribute to the total ZEN exposure of an individual, ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w.) and equimolar amounts of two of its plant metabolites (ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside) and of one fungal metabolite (ZEN-14-sulfate) were orally administered to four pigs as a single bolus using a repeated measures design. The concentrations of ZEN, its modified forms and its mammalian metabolites ZEN-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and α-ZEL-14-glucuronide in excreta were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based methods. The biological recovery of ZEN in urine was 26% ± 10%, the total biological recovery in excreta was 40% ± 8%. Intact ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were neither detected in urine nor in feces. After ZEN-14-sulfate application, 19% ± 5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine. In feces, no ZEN metabolites were detected. The total biological recoveries of ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside in the form of their metabolites in urine were 19% ± 11% and 13% ± 7%, respectively. The total biological recoveries in urine and feces amounted to 48% ± 7% and 34 ± 3%. An explanation for the low biological recoveries could be extensive metabolization by intestinal bacteria to yet unknown metabolites. In summary, ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of swine, thus contributing to the overall toxicity of ZEN. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessCommunication Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 355; doi:10.3390/toxins8120355
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be
[...] Read more.
Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC. In this screen, fractions containing the red pigments aurofusarin and bikaverin showed effects against strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The IC50 for aurofusarin against Lactobacillus acidophilus was 8 µM, and against Bifidobacterium breve it was 64 µM. Aurofusarin only showed an effect on probiotic bacteria, leading to the speculation that only health-promoting bacteria with a positive effect in the gut system are affected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deoxynivalenol and Its Modified Forms: Are There Major Differences?
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 334; doi:10.3390/toxins8110334
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
PDF Full-text (3633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure
[...] Read more.
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1). In the current study we used the well-established Caco-2 cell model to compare the effects of these naturally occurring forms of DON on cell viability and markers of barrier integrity, as well as on the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine chemokine CXC motif ligand (CXCL8). Results show that 3ADON is less potent in inducing adverse effects on barrier integrity when compared to DON, whereas 15ADON appears to be slightly more potent than DON. In contrast, DON3G and DOM-1 exerted no measurable adverse effects on the intestinal barrier. It was also demonstrated that galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are able to protect epithelial cells against DON and its acetylated forms, which suggests that GOS are beneficial food additives in the protection of vulnerable segments of the human population against adverse effects of DON and its derivatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 306; doi:10.3390/toxins8110306
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24 h prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non-parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/mL urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine) and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/mL urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/mL/day) urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p < 0.005 two-tailed) and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p < 0.0005 two-tailed). This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 295; doi:10.3390/toxins8100295
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the
[...] Read more.
Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 231; doi:10.3390/toxins8080231
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion, subclinical doses of DON and FB showed little effects in unchallenged chickens, but seem to result in metabolic and immunologic disturbances that amplify the severity of coccidiosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 186; doi:10.3390/toxins8060186
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 4 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi
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Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 112; doi:10.3390/toxins8040112
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
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Abstract
Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the
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Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut. Full article
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Open AccessReview Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 94; doi:10.3390/toxins8040094
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 26 March 2016
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (3428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural
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Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fumonisin B1 (FB1) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 89; doi:10.3390/toxins8040089
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to
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One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB1 at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB1 significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB1 (2.5–10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB1 impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB1 might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB1 on the equine hoof in more detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 84; doi:10.3390/toxins8030084
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of
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The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB1 to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB1 was completely degraded to HFB1 in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB1+FB2; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB1 in excreta, whereas HFB1 concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB1+FB2 for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB1 and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB1 in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity
Toxins 2016, 8(2), 42; doi:10.3390/toxins8020042
Received: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
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Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON), also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after
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Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON), also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after ingestion, so it has been suggested that they have the same toxicity as DON. However, in the intestinal entry region such as the duodenum, the derivatives might come into contact with intestinal epithelium cells because metabolism by microflora or import into the body has not progressed. Therefore, the differences of toxicity between DON and these derivatives need to be investigated. Here, we observed gene expression changes in the yeast pdr5Δ mutant strain under concentration-dependent mycotoxin exposure conditions. 15ADON exposure induced significant gene expression changes and DON exposure generally had a similar but smaller effect. However, the glucose transporter genes HXT2 and HXT4 showed converse trends. 3ADON also induced a different expression trend in these genes than DON and 15ADON. These differences in gene expression suggest that DON and its derivatives have different effects on cells. Full article
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2015

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Open AccessArticle Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha
Toxins 2016, 8(1), 3; doi:10.3390/toxins8010003
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed)
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We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys
Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4706-4729; doi:10.3390/toxins7114706
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens
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Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize
Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4622-4644; doi:10.3390/toxins7114622
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detection of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B2 and B3 in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS
Toxins 2015, 7(9), 3700-3714; doi:10.3390/toxins7093700
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These “bound-fumonisins” (FB2 and FB3 bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)
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The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These “bound-fumonisins” (FB2 and FB3 bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B2 (NDfrc-FB2) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B3 (NDfrc-FB3) respectively, based on the accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Treatment on NDfrc-FB2 and NDfrc-FB3 with the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) reagent also supported that d-glucose binding to FB2 and FB3 molecules occurred to their primary amine residues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3210-3223; doi:10.3390/toxins7083210
Received: 16 April 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low
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Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low doses of zearalenone over long periods of time. The term “carryover” describes the transfer of mycotoxins from feed to edible tissues, and it was used to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure for consumers. The experimental gilts with body weight of up to 25 kg were per os administered zearalenone at a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (Group E, n = 18) or placebo (Group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. In the first weeks of exposure, the highest values of the carryover factor were noted in the duodenum and the jejunum. In animals receiving pure zearalenone, the presence of metabolites was not determined in intestinal tissues. In the last three weeks of the experiment, very high values of the carryover factor were observed in the duodenum and the descending colon. The results of the study indicate that in animals exposed to subclinical doses of zearalenone, the carryover factor could be determined by the distribution and expression of estrogen receptor beta. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2071-2095; doi:10.3390/toxins7062071
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (5164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term,
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term, low-dose DON exposure on various gut health parameters in pigs. Piglets received a commercial feed or the same feed contaminated with DON (0.9 mg/kg feed) for 10 days, and two hours after a DON bolus (0.28 mg/kg BW), weight gain was determined and samples of different segments of the intestine were collected. Even the selected low dose of DON in the diet negatively affected weight gain and induced histomorphological alterations in the duodenum and jejunum. The mRNA expression of different tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially occludin, of inflammatory markers, like interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxigenase1, were affected along the intestine by low levels of DON in the diet. Taken together, our results indicate that even after low-level exposure to DON, which has been generally considered as acceptable in animal feeds, clinically-relevant changes are measurable in markers of gut health and integrity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Food Contaminant Zearalenone and Its Metabolites Affect Cytokine Synthesis and Intestinal Epithelial Integrity of Porcine Cells
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1979-1988; doi:10.3390/toxins7061979
Received: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN
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The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10–100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). We demonstrated that both ZEN metabolites were more toxic for IPEC cells as resulted from the XTT test, while for doses lower than 10 µM, only β-ZOL showed a more pronounced cytotoxicity versus epithelial cells as resulted from neutral red assay. ZEN has no effect on TER values, while α-ZOL significantly decreased the TER values, starting with day 4 of treatment. β-ZOL had a dual effect, firstly it induced a significant increase of TER, and then, starting on day 6, it induced a dramatic decrease of TER values as compared with on day 0. Concerning the cytokine synthesis, our results showed that ZEN has a tendency to increase the synthesis of IL-8 and IL-10. By contrast, α- and β-ZOL decreased the expression of both IL-8 and IL-10, in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that ZEN and its metabolites differently affected porcine intestinal cell viability, transepithelial resistance and cytokine synthesis with important implication for gut health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nivalenol Has a Greater Impact than Deoxynivalenol on Pig Jejunum Mucosa in Vitro on Explants and in Vivo on Intestinal Loops
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1945-1961; doi:10.3390/toxins7061945
Received: 22 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (4083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo
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The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for animal and human gut health, following contaminated food or feed ingestion. The impact of DON and NIV on intestinal mucosa was investigated after acute exposure, in vitro and in vivo. The histological changes induced by DON and NIV were analyzed after four-hour exposure on pig jejunum explants and loops, two alternative models. On explants, dose-dependent increases in the histological changes were induced by DON and NIV, with a two-fold increase in lesion severity at 10 µM NIV. On loops, NIV had a greater impact on the mucosa than DON. The overall proliferative cells showed 30% and 13% decrease after NIV and DON exposure, respectively, and NIV increased the proliferative index of crypt enterocytes. NIV also increased apoptosis at the top of villi and reduced by almost half the proliferative/apoptotic cell ratio. Lamina propria cells (mainly immune cells) were more sensitive than enterocytes (epithelial cells) to apoptosis induced by NIV. Our results demonstrate a greater impact of NIV than DON on the intestinal mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, and highlight the need of a specific hazard characterization for NIV risk assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1929-1944; doi:10.3390/toxins7061929
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight =
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An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05). Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study
Toxins 2015, 7(3), 705-718; doi:10.3390/toxins7030705
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic
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A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 593-603; doi:10.3390/toxins7020593
Received: 4 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower
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Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37–1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Chronic Exposure to Deoxynivalenol Has No Influence on the Oral Bioavailability of Fumonisin B1 in Broiler Chickens
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 560-571; doi:10.3390/toxins7020560
Received: 9 December 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
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Abstract
Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs) in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and
[...] Read more.
Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs) in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and integrity, by affecting the intestinal surface area and function of the tight junctions. This might influence the oral bioavailability of FB1, and possibly lead to altered toxicity of this mycotoxin. A toxicokinetic study was performed with two groups of 6 broiler chickens, which were all administered an oral bolus of 2.5 mg FBs/kg BW after three-week exposure to either uncontaminated feed (group 1) or feed contaminated with 3.12 mg DON/kg feed (group 2). No significant differences in toxicokinetic parameters of FB1 could be demonstrated between the groups. Also, no increased or decreased body exposure to FB1 was observed, since the relative oral bioavailability of FB1 after chronic DON exposure was 92.2%. Full article
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