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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 84; doi:10.3390/toxins8030084

Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine

1
BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Erber Campus 1, 3131 Getzersdorf, Austria
2
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Timișoara, Calea Aradului 119, 300645 Timișoara, Romania
4
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB1 to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB1 was completely degraded to HFB1 in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB1+FB2; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB1 in excreta, whereas HFB1 concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB1+FB2 for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB1 and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB1 in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: detoxification; biotransformation; feed additive; Fusarium toxins; biomarker; metabolism; toxicokinetics; swine; poultry detoxification; biotransformation; feed additive; Fusarium toxins; biomarker; metabolism; toxicokinetics; swine; poultry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Masching, S.; Naehrer, K.; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.-E.; Sărăndan, M.; Schaumberger, S.; Dohnal, I.; Nagl, V.; Schatzmayr, D. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine. Toxins 2016, 8, 84.

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