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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4706-4729; doi:10.3390/toxins7114706

Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

1
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria
2
Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 4060, Austria
3
Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology, Wiener Neustadt 2700, Austria
4
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig 38116, Germany
5
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; biomarkers; HPLC-MS/MS; poultry; deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate; deoxynivalenol sulfonates mycotoxins; biomarkers; HPLC-MS/MS; poultry; deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate; deoxynivalenol sulfonates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E.; Fruhmann, P.; Dänicke, S.; Wiesenberger, G.; Caha, S.; Weber, J.; Berthiller, F. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys. Toxins 2015, 7, 4706-4729.

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